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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874


English-Ojebway Dictionary



I; neen. Conjoined with verbs; ne-, nind-. It is I; neen suh.

Ice; n. a. mequúm. There is ice; mequúmekah, v. i. 1, (p. c. maqu-). He comes on the ice; peedáhduhgauko, v. n. 4, (p. c paud-). He walks on the ice; peemahduhgauko, (p. c. pam-) He goes along on the ice; uhnemáhduhgauko. He walks on the ice in water; twáutwuskóbegenum, v. n. 5. He breaks through the ice walking; twáushin, v. n. 6. He makes a hole in the ice for water; twáhebe, v. n. 3a. Water hole; twáhebun. (pl. -un). The ice goes off; pemewábejewun, v. i. 6. The ice floats down stream; pemáhboogo, v. n. 4. The ice opens; taushkequahdin, v. i. 5, The ice is hollow; weembahgoojin, v. i. 5. There are holes (openings) in the ice; puhgwuhnázhaugegahmewun, v. i. 6. The ice is thick; kepugguhdin, v. i. 5. The ice is green; ozháhwushquáhsegwah.

Ice-bank; n. a. guhgánegwuhun, (pl. -oog); There are i. -b.; guhganegwuhunóokah, v. i. 6.

Icicle; n. a. mequumans, (pl. -ug).

Idea; n. i. nuhnáhguhduwándumoon, (pl. -un).

Idiot; n. a. petuhwauje-uhyah, (pl. -g).

Idle. He is i.; ketemishke, v. n. 3, (p. c. katem-).

Idol; n. a. muzzenene, (pl. -g). He worships i.; muhnedoóka. He worships it (as an i.); o-muhnedookánun, v. t. VI., (p. c. man-).

Idolater; p. n. a. manedoókad, (pl. -jig).

Idolatry; n. i. muhnedookáwin.

If; kishpin, (with the subjunctive).

Ignorant (untutored). He is i.; puhgwunúhweze, v. n. 3, (p. c. -pag.) (benighted); tebekúdeze, v. n. 3. III. See sick.

Illegal. It is i.; genuhuhmahgámuhgud, v. i. 8, (p. c. gan-).

Illegitimate. He is i.; gemenejáhgunewe v. n. 3. (p. c. gaum-).

Illiberal. He is illiberal; suhsáhgeze, v. n. 3.

Ill-tempered. He is ill t.; súhnuhgese, máunzhenewúggeze, v. n. 3, (p. c. sa-, muhy-).

Illustrated. It is i.; muhzenéchegunewun, v. i. 6, (p. c. maze-).

Image; n. a. (or picture - anyth. carved, engraved, or painted); muhzenéchegun, (pl. -ug). He makes i.; muhzenécheguneka, v. n. 2, (p. c. maz-).

Imagination; n. i. nuhnáhguhduhwandumoowin, (pl. -un).

Imagine. He im. (pictures to himself); nuhnáhguhduhwandum, v. n. 5., (p. c. nan-). Has foolish fancies; uhnesháh enándum, v. n. 5.

Imbecile. See stupid.

Imitate. He im.; kekeno-wáhbunga, v. n. 2, (p. c. kak-). He im. him, it; o-kekeno-wahbumaun, o-kekenowahbundaun, v. t. I., VII., (p. c. kake-).

Immediately; adv. páhbega.

Immense. See huge, enormous.

Immerse. He im. him, it; od-uhgwinjemaun, od-uhgwinjetoon, v. t. I., VIII. (p. c. agw-).

Immodest. He is im.; kahween ahgujjese. v. n. 3 neg.

Immoral. See lewd, impure.

Immortal. He is im.; káhgega-bemahdeze, v. n. 3, (p. c. kuhyah-).

Immortality; n. i. káhgega-bemáhdezewin.

Imp; n. a. muhnedoóshans, (pl. -ug).

Impassable. It is im.; kahween tah-kushkeöseem.

Impatience; pechenahwázewin; shuhguhdanduhmowin.

Impatient. He is im. (angrily); pechenahwáze, enewáze, v. n. 3, (p. c. pach-, ane-). He is angrily im.; nishkahje shuhguhdandum. See hurry.

Impede. See hinder.

Impenitent. He is im.; kahween aunwánindézoose. See repent.

Imperfect. He, it is im.; kahween kwuhyukosase, wuhyáhwunandáhgooze, -dahgwud, v. i. 10.

Import. He im. it; wahsuh uhkeeng od-oóndenaun, v. t. I., VII.

Important. It is im.; keche-enandahgwud, v. i. 7, (p. c. kache-).

Importune; see beseech. He im. him (with annoying words); o-megooshkáusoomaun, v. t. I., (p. c. mag-).

Importunity; n. i. megooshkausoongáwin.

Impose. See cheat.

Impostor; p. n. a. wayázhingad, (pl. -jig).

Impossible. It is im.; bwáhnuhwetoom, (lit. one cannot do it, from bwahnuhwetoo, v. n. 4a). See incapable.

Imprison. He im. him; o-kebahquuhwaun, v. t. V., (p. c. kab-). He is im.; kcbahquuhëgáuso, v. n. 4.

Improbable. It is im.; kahween tah-ezhewábussenoon, (ezhewábud, v. i. 7). See unlikely.

Improper. It is im.; kahween menosásenoón, (menosa. v. i. 2).

Improve. His health im.; ashkum meno uhyah, v. n. 1. He i. in knowledge; ashkum uhnekekandáuso, v. n. 4. He i. in morals; ashkum menoezhewábeze (and so on, using ashkum).

Improvident. He is i.; kahween mahwunjetáusose, v. n. 4, neg.

Imprudent. See foolish, frivolous.

Impudence; n. i. uhgujjeséwin.

Impudent (shameless). He is i.; kahween uhgújjese, v. n. 3, neg.

Impudent person; p. n. a. agújjesig, (pl. -oog).

Impulsive. He is i.; osáumechega, v. n. 2, (p. c. was-).

Impure. He, it, is i.; wéneze, wéenud, v. n. 3, v. i. 7, (p. c. waun-). His heart is i.; weenedaä, v. n. 2.

Impure fire; weenáwishkoota. See lewd, obscene.

Impute. It is imputed to him; enánemah; v. t. I., pass. (e. g. sin is imputed to him; mujje-ezhewabeze enanemah).

In; -ng, as affix. (e. g., In the box; muhkukoong. In heaven; keezhegoong. In the river; seebeeng. In Toronto; Toronto-ing. In (inside); pindig, pinj. See inside. In the house; pindegummig. In a canoe; pindoonug. In there; emuh.

Inability. See incapable.

Inaccessible. See impassable.

Inanimate. Inan. nouns in Ojebway terminate their plural with n, and the verb to agree with them must have an inan. ending: e. g., I see canoes; ne-wahbundáunun chemáunun. See animate.

Inattentive. He is i.; kahween o-bahbahmandusseen, pabishquándum, v. n. 5, (p. c. bab-, puhyap-).

Incapable. He is i. (has not the power to do s.-th.); bwáhnuhwetoo, v. n. 4a. Bwáhnuhwe signifies incapability: e.g., He cannot accomplish it; o-bwáhnuhwetoon, v. t. VIII. (p. c. bwuhyahn-). He can do nothing with him; o-bwáh-nuhweäun, v. t. I. See ineffectual.

Incarnate. He becomes i.; weeyauseweäh, v. t. I., pass.

Incarnation; n. i. weeyáuseweëdézoowin.

Incendiary; p. n. a. sákuhegad, (pl. -jig).

Incendiarism; n. i. suhkuhegáwin.

Incense; n. i. menoomahgochegun, menomáhgwukésegun. He burns i.; meno máhsega, menomáhgwukésega, v. n. 2.

Inch; n. i. One, two, three i.; ningotoninj, nezhoninj, nesoninj. So many i.; dussoninj.

Incision; n. i. kishkezhegun. Inc. in a maple tree. See maple.

Incite. See encourage, stir up.

Inclination (readiness); n. i. enándumoowin.

Inclined. He is i. (willing); enandum, v. n. 5.

Inclined (propensity). It is thus i.; enúhgooda: e. g., His heart is incl. to evil; mahnahdudoong enúhgooda odá.

Inclined (sloping). See slanting.

Included. It is i.; duhgo-uhyáh, v. i. 1.

Income. His i.; menik tebúhumuhwind andusso peboon.

Inconstant. He is i. (is always changing); uhyáhzhuhwándum, v. n. 5, (p. c. ayah-).

Incontinence. He has i. of urine; zhéshingwum, v. n. 5, (p. c. zhaush-).

Inconvenient. It is i.; kahween meno-sasenoon, v. i. 3, neg.

Incorporate. See body.

Incorrigible. He is i.; netah-pesenáhdeze, v. n. 3, (p. c. natah-).

Incorruptible; natah-buhnáhdussenook.

Incorruption; n. i. buhnáhdezeséwin.

Increase. They, it i.; ashkum meshénowug, ashkum meshéenud, v. n. 4, pl. v. i. 7. We i. in population; kenetáh-wegemin, v. n. 3, pl. (p. c. natah-). See add, grow.

Incredible. It is i.; ahgoonwayandáhgwud, v. i, 7, (p. c. uhyaug-).

Incredulous. He is i. ; ahgoonwayándum, v. n. 5

Indecent. It is i.; weenandáhgwud, v. i. 7, (p. c. waun-). See impure, obscene. He lies indecently; nebáujeshin, v. n. 6. He behaves i.; wcenáhdeze, v. n. 3.

Indeed; kágat, gooshah. See at least.

Independent. He is i. (free); tebánindezo, mod. A. (p. c. tab-).

Indian; n. a. uhnishenáhba, (pl. -g). I. woman; uhnishenáhbequá, (pl. -g). I. child; uhnishenahbans, (pl. -ug).

Indian agent; n. a. uhnishenáhba-ogemah, (pl. -g).

Indian ceremony; n. i. uhnishenáhba-ezhetwáhwin, (pl. -un).

Indian character; n. i. uhnishenahbawahdezewin. He has the I. c.; uhnishenahbawáhdeze.

Indian corn. See corn.

Indian country; n. i. uhnishenáhba-ühke. He lives in the I. c.; uhnishenahbáke, v. n. 3a.

Indian cradle; n. i. tekenáhgun, (pl. -in).

Indian dance; n. i. uhnishenahbáwishemoowin; uhnishenahbawishemo, v. n. 4. Scalp dance; guhonaujewin.

Indian fashion. He lives in I. f.; uhnishenahbáwejega, v. n. 2.

Indian feast (religious); muggoosháwin. Feast of the dead; chebáguhnukáwin.

Indian games. The dish game; puhgasáwin. Ball game; puhguhudoowáwin.

Indian language; n. i. uhnishenahbamoowin. He speaks I.; uhnishenahbamó, v. n. 4. It is written in I.; uhnishenahbáwesin, uhnishenahbamómuhgud, v. i. 5, 8. He translates it into Indian; od-uhnishenahbáwesetoon, n. t. VIII.

Indian medicine (for headache); sahsuhbequun.

Indian name; n. i. uhnishenahbáwenekáusoowin. He gives him an I. n.; od-uhnishenahbawenekahnaun, v. t. III. (p. c. anish-).

Indian ornaments; n. i. suhságaujegun, (pl. -un). Half-moon shape silver o.; waugese, (pl. -yag). Silver breast-plate; shooneyahwásemig, (pl. -ug). Wampum (porcelain beads), being the ancient money of the Indians; megís, (pl. -ug). Wampum strap (used by the Indians in making treaties); megisáhpekun, (pl. -un). Wampum breastplate (worn by great chiefs); megeséyasemig, (pl. -ug).

Indian religion; n. i. uhnishenahba-ezhetwahwin, (- ezhetwah, v. n. 1).

Indian song; n. i. uhnishenahba-nuhguhmoon, (pl. -un), (- nuhgumo, v. n. 4).

Indian spouse; p. n. a. wahweékuhwind, (pl. -jig).

Indian superstitions. Medicine craft; n. i. medáwewin. Medicine-man; n. a. medá, (pl. -g). Medicine-lodge; n. i. medáwegummig, (pl. -oon). Mythical bridge, over which the souls of the dead must pass; kookokáuzhogun. He uses enchantments; koosáhbundum. He causes him bad luck; o-mussahgweäun, v. t. I. He causes him sickness; od-uhnishenahbáwahpenáäun, v. t. I. He ascertains his sickness by magic; okoosáhbumaun. See witchcraft.

Indian tools, instruments, &c. War-club; puhgumáhgun, (pl. -un). Tomahawk; wahgáhquudoons, (pl. -un). Drum; tawáegun, (pl. -ug). Gourd-rattle; zheshégwun, (pl. -un).

Indian wigwam; n. i. wegewaum, (pl. -un). - with rounded roof; waugenoogún, (pl. -un). - with pointed roof; nuhsuhwáhoogún, (pl. -un). - of fir branches; shingoobegun, (pl. -un).

Indian writing; n. i. uhnishenahbáwebéëgun, (pl. -un). He writes Indian; uhnishenahbáwebéëga, v. n. 2, (p. c. anish-).

India-rubber; n. i. gausebeëgun, (pl. -un).

Indisposed (unwell). He is i.; mahnuhmaunjeö, v. n. 4, (p. c. muhyaun-).

Indisposition; n. i. mahnuhmaunjeöwin.

Industrious. He is in.; netah-uhnóoke, minwáweze, v. n. 3a, 3, (p. c. nat-, man-). He is an in. man; kushkechegáwenenéwe, v. n. 3, (p. c. kashk-).

Industry; n. i. minwáwezewin.

Ineffectual. It is in.; aunuhwáwezemuhgud, v.i. 8. See effect, in vain.

Infancy; n. i. ahbenoojeewewin.

Infant; n. a. ooshke-ahbenoóje, tákoobezood-úhbenóoje, (pl. -yug).

Infectious. It is in.; mezhekahgámuhgud, v. i. 8, (p. c. mazh-).

Infer from. He in. from; oonje-enándum.

Inferior; muhwuj tahbuhshish.

Infidel; p. n. a. anuhmeähsig, (pl. -oog).

Infinite; wuhyaquáusenook.

Infirm. He is i.; netah-ahkoose. v. n. 3, (p. c. nat-). See weak.

Inflamed. It is in.; mahjegenene, v. i. 3.

Inflexible. It is in.; (an. in.) kahpese, kahpun, v. n. 3, v. i. 6, (p. c. kuhyah-).

Influence. He in. him; o-weekoojeaun, v. t. 1.

lnfluenza. He has the in.; keche-uhgigookah, v. n. 1, (p. c. kache-).

Information (given); weendumahgáwin. - (received); weendumáhgoowin. He gives in.; weendumahga, v. n. 2, (p. c. waund-).

Inhabit. See live in.

Inhabitant; p. n. a. abetung, (pl. -ig).

Inharmonious. It is in.; kahween menotáhgwusscnoon, v. i. 7 neg.

Inherit. He in. it; o-náhbishkaun, v. t. VII, (p. c. nuhyaub-); od-ahneka uhbetaun.

Initiate. He in. him; o-kekándumoäun, v. t. 1, (p. c. kak-).

Injection; n. i. pindáubahwahjegun, (pl. -un). He gives him an in. (clyster); o-pindáubahwahnaun, v. t. III., (p. c. paund-).

Injure (wrong, damage). He in. him; o-mezheäun, od-eneguhäun, v. i. I., (p. c. mazh-, ane-). He in. it; o-mezhetoon, od-eneguhtoon, v. t. VIII. See hurt, wound.

Injury (wound); mahkezewin, mahkeäwin.

Ink; n. i. ozhebéëgunáhbo.

Inland. See interior.

Inn; n. i. uhshungáwegummig, (pl. -oon).

Inner; pinjuhynheé.

Innocence; n. i. péenezewin.

Innocent. He is in.; peeneze, v.n.3, (p. c. paun-).

Innovation; n. i. oshke-ezhetwáhwin, (pl. -un).

Inoculatce. See vaccinate. In order to; che-, che we- .

Inquest; n. i. kuhgwadwáwin.

In regard to; oonje. In reg. to him, them; tábáhjemind, mindwah. In reg. to it; tebahdooduming.

Insane. See mad, lunatic.

Inscription; p. n. i. wazhebeëgádag, (pl. -in).

Insect; n. a. muhnedoons, (pl. -ug).

Insensible. He is in.; kahween mekúhwese, v. n. 3 neg., (p. c. mak-) See faint.

Inside; pindig, peenjúhyeëe, pinj-, pin-jenuh. Inside the body; uhnáumenah. He turns it ins. out; od-ahboodenaun, v. t. VIII.

Insignificant. He is in.; uhgahsandahgooze. He, it is in.; nuhgékahwandáhgooze, -dáugwud, v. i. 10. He regards him, it as in.; o-nuhgékahwanemaun, -wandaun, v. t. I., VII.

Insinuate. See hint.

Insipid. See tasteless.

Insist. See persist.

Insolence; n. i. pesetahgoozewin.

Insolent. He is in. (in his language); pesetáhgooze, v. n. 3, (p. c. pase-).

Inspect. He in. it; o-guhnuhwáhbundaun, v. t. VII. (p. c. gan-).

In spite of; ketwán.

Instant (moment); wánebik.

Instantly; sásekah.

Instead of; máshquut. He does in. of him (takes his place); o-nuhbishkuhmuhwaun. mod. C.

Instinct of animals; ahwáse-ühyenándumoowin.

Institution (industrial); kekandáuso-wegúmmig, (pl. -oon). See asylum.

Instruct. See teach.

Instrument (tool, &c); n. i. uhnookáusoowin, ahbujjéchegun, (pl. -un).

Instrument of music; n. i. mudwawachegun. Piano, organ, harp, &c.; mudwawáchegun. Fiddle, base viol. &c.; nauzhuhbéëgun. Flute, pipe, &c.; pépegwun. Trumpet, bugle, &c.; pootáhjegun. Drum, tabret, &c.; tawáëgun.

Insult; pesoongáwin. Insulting noise; muhwenáëgáwin.

Insult. He in. him; o-pesoomaun, v. t. I., (p. c. pas-). He in. him by signs with the hand (a great ins. among Indians); o-nemískumaun, v. t. I., (p. c. nam-). He makes an insulting noise at him; o-muhwenáwaun, v. t.V., (p. c. ma-). He in. him and makes him weep; o-sasásemaun, v. t. I., (p. c. suhya-).

Insulted. He feels in. by him; o-pesétuhwaun, v. t. II., (p. c. pas-).

Intellect (intelligence); nebwahkahwin.

Intelligent. He is in. (has his senses); nebwahkah, v. n. 1, (p. c. nabw-).

Intelligible. It is in.; nesedotáhgwud, v. i. 7.

Intemperate. He is in.; menequáshke, mod. A.

Intend. He in.; enandum, v. n. 5, (p. c. an-). He in. to do something (is pre-paring); uhpéche, v. n. 3a, (p. c. ap-), or merely prefix we-, e. g. he intends to go; we-ezhah, v. n. 1, (p. c. wah-).

Intercede. He in.; guhguhnóodumáhga, v. n. 2, (p. c. gag-). He in. for him; o-guhguhnóoduhmuhwaun, mod. C.

Intercession; n. i. guhguhnóodumahgáwin.

Intercessor; p. n. a. gaguhnoodumáhgad, (pl. -jig); guhguhnóodumáhga-wenéne, (pl. -wug).

Interesting. It is in.; menotahgwud, v. i. 7.

Interfere. He in. (acting); wahweyúggeze, v. n. 3, (p. c. wuhyah-). - (speaking); wahweyúggemo, v. n. 4.

Interior (inland, back in the bush); nóopeming, magwákummig. He goes back into the in.; góope v. n. 3a. He goes back.. on a river by a canoe; goópuhum, v. n. 5, (p. c. gwap-). The road or trail leads back..; goópuhmo mekunuh.

Intermittent fever; uhyuhpeech-kezhesoong.

Interpret. He in.; áhnekunóotahga, v. n. 2, (p. c. uhyahn-). He int. him, it; od-ahnekunoótuhwaun, od-ahnekunoótaun, v. t. II., VII.

Interpretation; n. i. ahnekunootahgáwin.

Interpreter; p. n. a. uhyahnekunóotahgad, ahnekunootahgáwenéne, (pl. -jig, -wug).

Interrupt. He in. him; od-óondumeäun.

Interruption; n. i. oondumeëwáwin.

Intersect. See cross.

Interval. See short, long.

Interview; n. i. wáhbundewin.

Intestines. See bowels.

Intimacy. See friendship.

Intimate. See hint.

Into. Same as in.

Intoxicate. It in.; kewushquábemuhgud, v. i. 8. It in. him; o-kewushquábeëgoon, v. t. 1 in. obj. See drank.

Intractable. He is in.; pesenáhdeze, v. n. 3. He finds him in. (he can do nothing with him); o-bwáhnuhweäun, v. t. 1, (p. c. bwuhyah-).

Intricate. See obscure.

Introduce. He i. him (to a stranger); opeedumuhwaun, v. t. II.

Intrude. He i. (where he is not wanted); wáhweyuggeze, v. n. 3.

Intrust. See commit.

Inundation (there is); nekebémuhgud.

In vain; uhnesháh.

Invalid; p. n. a. uhyáukoozid, (pl. -jig).

Invaluable. It is invaluable; ahpeche-ahpeetandáhgwud, v. i. 10, (p. c. uhyaup-).

Invent. He i. it; o-mekuhwáhshetoon, v. t. VIII. (p. c mak-).

Invention; n. i. mekuhwaushetóowin.

Investigation. See inquest.

Invisible. He, it, is i.; kahween wahbumenáhgoozese, - náhgwussenoon, v. i. 10, neg. (p. c. wuhyahb-).

Invite. He i. (simmons him); o-nundoomaun, v. t. I. (p. c. nand-). He i. him to a meal; o-wéekoomaun.

Invoke. He i. him; o-nuhnáundoomaun.

Involuntarily; prefix péeche-. See mistake.

Inward; pindig enuhknkáyah.

Ireland; Irishmun-uhkeeng.

Irish; n. a. Irish, (pl. -ug).

Iron; n. i. pewáubik. A piece of iron; pookwáubik, (pl. -oon). Cast i.; sáhguhëgáhdag pewáhbik. Wrought i.; wánuhguhegáhdag pewáhbik. He wks i.; pewaubekooka, v. n. 2, (p. c. paw-).

Iron; adj. pewaubeko-.

Iron clothing. He irons cl.; shóoshquuh-gúhega, v. n. 2, (p. c. shwaush-). He irons it; (an. in.) oshóoshquuhgáhwaun, -guhaun, v. t. V., VII. See flat-iron.

Iron mine; pewáubekokaun, (pl. -un). He works in an i. m.; pewaubikooka.

Iron pot. See kettle.

Iroquois. See Mohawk.

Irregular. He is i. (in habits); kahween uhyuhpunezheühyahse.

Irresolute. He is i.; nóokedaä, v. n. 2.

Irresponsible. He is i.; kahween tahenanemáhse, v. t. I., pass. neg.

Irritate. He i. him; o-nishkeáun, v. t. I.

Irritation. See anger, itching, provoke.

Is; see be. It is - ; suh (particle of assertion). Is it - ? nuh ? (particle of enquiry). It is so; me suh. Is it so; -me ewh. That is it, or that will do;

Island; n. i. ménis, (pl. -un). Island in a river; rapid; menetigóojewun, (pl. -un).

Islet; menesáns, (pl. -un).

Isolated. It is i.; nezheká-uhyáhmuhgud, v. i. 8, (p. c. nazh-).

Issue of blood; misquewahpenáwin.

It; ewh. That is it; me ewh. It, in the objective case, expressed by using the inanimate form of the verb: e.g., He sees it; o-wáhbundaun, v. t. VII. It sees him; o-wáhbumegoon, v. t. I., in. obj.

Itself; expressed by using mod. A. with termination of v. i. 8: e.g., It sees itself; wahbundezómuhgud.

Itch (itching); kezhébesewin.

Itch. He itches (has irritation of the skin); kezhébeze, v. n. 3, (p. c. kazh-). He has itching of part of the body; kezhébe-: e.g., - of the hand; kezhébeninje. - of the foot; kezhébezeda. - of the head; kezhébindeba, v. n. 3a, 2.

Itchy. He is i.; kezhébauzha, v. n. 2.

Ivy; n. a. waubezháshewuhchaub.

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