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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874

 

Rules For Changing The Power Of Verbs.

I. To change a Neuter Verb to a Transitive Verb, (animate)
II. To change a Neuter Verb into an Impersonal Verb
III. To change Transitive Verbs Animate to Inanimate
IV. To change a Transitive Verb (inanim.) to an Impersonal

 

Rules For Changing The Power Of Verbs.

When it is necessary to change the power of a verb the Dictionary had better be always consulted first, to see if what we require is given there. As to nearly every rule, we shall find there are a number of exceptions.

The following directions are intended rather as a guide to the manner of effecting the changes, than as absolute rules to be invariably, depended on.

I. To change a Neuter Verb to a Transitive Verb, (animate).

(1.) Many verbs of the first four neuter paradigms (AH, A, E, O,) may be changed into transitive verbs of the 6th Paradigm by adding nun. Thus: Ezhah, he goes; od-ezhahnun, he goes to him. Wuhnéka, he forgets something; o-wuhnekánun, he forgets to take him. Kemoode, he steals; o-kemoodenun, he steals him. Uhtauso, he stores up; od-uhtausoonun, he stores it (an obj.) up. Uhtuhmahdezo, he stores up for himself; od-uhtuhmahdezoonun, he stores it (an obj.) up for himself.

(2.) Many verbs of the first four neuter paradigms may be changed into transitive verbs of the 2nd Paradigm by adding tuhwaun. Thus: Ojecheengwuhnetah, he kneels; od-ojecheengwuhnetuhwaun, he kneels to him. Dabwa, he speaks truth; o-dabwatuhwaun, he believes him. Cheemauneka, he makes a canoe; o-cheemaune-kátuhwaun, he makes him a canoe. Poose, he embarks; o-poosetuhwaun, he embarks him. Nebo, he dies; o-nebotuhwaun, he dies for him.

(3.) Many verbs ending in ewa, may have this ending changed to aun, which with the pronominal prefix makes them transitive. Thus: Sahgeëwa, he loves; o-sahgeäun, he loves him (V.T.1).

(4) Many verbs neuter become transitive by changing njega to maun or nemaun. Thus: Wahbunjega, (see), owahbumaun; mequanjega, (remember), omequanemaun.

(5.) Some verbs neuter become transitive by changing ahga to uhwaun. Thus: Doodahga, (act), odooduhwaun; noondahga, (hear), onoonduhwaun.

(6.) Many verbs neuter of the 5th and 6th Paradigms (UM, IN) may be changed into transitive verbs of the lst and 2nd Paradigms. Thus: UM into emaun, as mequandum, (remember), omequanemaun; UM into uhwaun, as doodum, (act), odooduhwaun; IN into emaun, as duhgwishin, (arrive), o-duhgwishemaun.

(7.) Acting with is formed by prefixing weej and adding -maun. Thus: O-weej-uhnookemaun, he works with him; o-weej-puhsegweemaun, he rises with him; from uhnooke, he works; puhsegwe, he rises.

 

II. To change a Neuter Verb into an Impersonal Verb.

(1.) Almost any verb of the first four neuter paradigms (AH, A, E, O,) may be made impersonal by simply adding muhgyd. Thus: Ezhah, he goes; ezhahmuhgud, it goes; ekedo, he says; ekedomuhgud, it says.

(2.) Verbs of the 5th and 6th Paradigm, neuter, (UM, IN) add omuhgud. Thus: Duhgwishinomuhgud, enandumomuhgud.

(3.) Neuter verbs ending in AUSO, change in the impersonal to AHDA. Thus Mequanjegauso, he is remembered; mequanjegahda, it is remembered.

(4.) Neuter verbs ending in GOOZE, change in the impersonal to GWUD. Thus: Noondahgooze, he is heard; noondahgwud, it is heard.

(5.) Some verbs ending in ese, change this ending to ah. Thus: Mushkuhwese, he is strong; mushkuhwah, it is strong.

(6.) Some verbs ending in eze, change this ending to un. Thus: soongeze, he is strong; soongun, it is strong.

(7.) A great many verbs ending in eze, change this ending to UD. Thus: Peeneze, he is clean; peenud, it is clean. Mechahbekeze, it (metal, anim.) is large; mechahbekud, it (metal, inanim.) is large. So also, gooze changes to gwud, kooze to kwud. Thus: It (wooden obj.) is large, (anim.) mechahkooze, (inanim.) mechahkwud.

(8.) Many verbs of the 5th Paradigm change UM to ahgwud. Thus: Noondum, he hears; noondahgwud, it is heard.

(9.) Many verbs of the 6th Paradigm change SHIN to SIN. Thus: Pungeshin, he falls; pungesin, it falls.

(10.) so sometimes changes to DA, or TA, as uhdeso (it is dyed) uhdeta.

(11.) Verbs of the 2nd Paradigm ending in GA, change to GAHDA. Thus: Ezhechega, he does; ezhechegahda, it is done.

 

III. To change Transitive Verbs Animate to Inanimate.

(1.) Nearly all verbs of the lst Paradigm (trans.) ending in MAUN, change this ending to NBAUN, EMAUN to DAUN. Thus: Owahbumaun, he sees him; owahbundaun, he sees it. Omequanemaun, he remembers him; omequandaun, he remembers it.

(2.) Most verbs of the lst Paradigm that have a vowel or vowel sound before the ending AUN, change AUN to TOON. Thus: Osahgeäun, (love), osahgetoon; od-eneguhaun, (injure), od-eneguhtoon.

(3.) Shemaun changes to setoon. Thus: Opungeshemaun, he makes him fall; opungesetoon, he makes it fall.

(4.) UHWAUN generally changes to AUN. Thus: Onoonduhwaun, he hears him; onoondaun, he hears it.

(5.) NAUN, changes either to DAUN or DOON, if of the 3rd Paradigm, but retains the same termination if of the lst Paradigm. Thus: Opeenaun, he brings him; opeedoon, he brings it. Odzehewenaun, he sends him; odzehewedoon, he sends it. Onuhguhnaun, he leaves him; onuhguhdaun, he leaves it. But (of the lst Paradigm) owabenaun, he rejectj him; owabenaun, he rejects it. Opuhgedenaun, he lets him or it go.

(6.) SAUN usually changes to TOON, as onesaun, (kill), onetoon.

(7.) WAUN changes to AUN, as opuhketawaun, (strike), opuhketaäun.

(8.) NUN always changes to N, as okeemodinun, (steal), okeemodin.

 

IV. To change a Transitive Verb (inanim.) to an Impersonal.

DAUN, in many verbs, changes to JEGAHDA. Thus: Owahbundaun, he sees it; wahbunjegahda, it is seen.

DAUN, in many verbs, changes to DAHGWUD. Thus: Onoondaun, he hears it; noondahgwud, it is heard.

AUN, in many verbs, changes to EGAHDA. Thus: Okebahquuhäun, he shuts it up; kebahquuhëgahda, it is shut up.

TOON, in many verbs, changes to CHEGAHDA. Thus: Od-ozhetoon, he makes it; ozhechegahda, it is made.

SEDOON can often be changed to SIN. Thus: O-quuhyukoosedoon, he places it right; quuhyukoosin, it is placed right.

NAUN generally changes to JEGAHDA. Thus: Owahbenaun, he throws it away; wahbejegahda, it is thrown away.

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