previous | contents | next

Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874

 

The Dubitative. (Transitive)

Positive Form.
Negative Form.
Passive Voice.

 

THE DUBITATIVE.

Transitive Verb - Positive Form.
Example: Paradigm I. -AUN.

NG=0 CELLPADDING=3>
INDICATIVE MOOD
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him
I (?), ......... ke..enenahdoog, ne..ahdoog,
thou, ke..edoog ........ ke..ahdoog
he, ne..égodoog, ke..égodoog, o..ahdoganun,
we (ex.), ........ ke..egóodoog, ne..ahnahdoog,
you, ke..emedoog, ........ ke..ahwahdoog,
they, ne..égodogánug, ke..égodogánug, o..ahwahdoganun,
 
  Us (excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I (?), ........ ........ ke..enenimwahdoog, ne..ahdoganug.
thou, ke..emenahdoog, ........ ........ ke..ahdoganug.
he, ne..egonahdoog, ke..egonahdoog, ke..egowáhdoog, o..ahdoganun.
we (ex.), ........ ........ ke..egóomedoog, ne..ahnahdoganug.
you, ke..emenahdoog, ........ ........ ke..ahwahdoganug.
they, ne..egonahdoganug, ke..egonahdoganug, ke..egowahdoganug, o..ahwahdoganun.
 
Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him
I (?), ........ ..enoowaunbaun, ..ahwugebun,
thou, ..ewunbun, ........ ..ahwudebun,
he, ..egoobun, ..enógoobun, ..ahgoobun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I (?) ........ ........ ..enoowahgoogobun, ..ahwugwahbun.
thou, ..ewaungebun, ........ ........ ..ahwudwahbun.
he, ..ewungedebun, ..enoowungoobun, ..enoowagoobun, ..ahgoobun.

 
PARTICIPLES.*

Present Tense
  Me Thee Him
I who, ........ ..enoowaunan, ..ahwugan,
thou who, ..ewunan ........ ..ahwudan,
he who, ..egwan, ..enoogwan, ..ahgwan,
we who (ex.), ........ ..egoowunan, ..ahwungedan,
we who (in.), ........ ........ ..ahwungan,
you who, ..ewagwan, ........ ..ahwagwan,
they who, ..egwanug, ..enoogwanug, ..ahgwanug,
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I who, ........ ........ ..enenuhgóogoogwan, ..ahwuganug.
thou who ..ewaungan, ........ ........ ..ahwudanug.
he who, ..ewungedan, ..enoowungwan, ..enoowagwan, ..ahgwan.
we who (ex.) ........ ........ ..egoowagwan, ..ahwungedanug.
we who (in.) ........ ........ ........ ..ahwunganug.
you who ..ewaungan, ........ ........ ..ahwagwanug.
they who ..ewungedanug, ..enoowungwanug, ..enoowagwanug, ..ahgwanug.

* The first syllable must be changed.
 
Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him
I who (?), ........ ..enoowaunbaunan, ..ahwugibunan,
thou who, ..ewunbunan, ........ ..ahwudibunan,
he who, ..egoobunan, ..enoogobunan, ..ahgobunan
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I (?) ........ ........ ..enenuhgóogoogobunan, ..ahwugwahbunan.
thou, ..ewaungebunan, ........ ........ ..ahwudwahbunan.
he, ..ewungedebunan, ..enoowungoobunan, ..enoowagoobunan, ..ahgobunan.

 

Transitive Verb - Negative Form.
Example: Paradigm I. -AUN.

INDICATIVE MOOD
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him
I do not (?), ......... k. ke..esenoonenahdoog, k. ne..ahsedoog,
thou, k. ke..esedoog, ........ k. ke..ahsedoog,
he, k. ne..égoosedoog, k. ke..égoosedoog, k. o..ahsedoganun,
we (ex.), ........ k. ke..egóosedoog, k. ne..ahsenahdoog,
you, k. ke..esemedoog, ........ k. ke..ahsewahdoog,
they, k. ne..egosedoganug k. ke..egoosedoganug k. o..ahsewahdoganun,
 
  Us (excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I (?), ........ ........ k. ke..esenoonenimwahdoog, k. ne..ahsedoganug.
thou, k. ke..esemenahdoog, ........ ........ k. ke..ahsedoganug.
he, k. ne..egoosenahdoog, ........ k. ke..egosewahdoog, k. o..ahsedoganun.
we (ex.), ........ ........ k. ke..egóosemedoog, k. ne..ahsenahdoganug.
you, k. ke..esemenahdoog, ........ ........ k. ke..ahsewahdoganug.
they, k. ne..egosenahdoganug, ........ k. ke..egosewahdoganug, k. o..ahsewahdoganun.

Note. - k. stands for kahween
 
Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him
I did not (?), ........ ..esenowaunbaun, ..ahsewugibun,
thou, ..esewunbun, ........ ..ahsewudibun,
he, ..esegoobun, ..esenoogobun, ..ahsigoobun,
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I (?) ........ ........ ..esenoowahgogobun, ..ahsewugwahbun.
thou, ..esewaungebun, ........ ........ ..ahsewudwahbun.
he, ..esewungedebun, ..esenoowungobun, ..esenoowagobun, ..ahsigoobun.

PARTICIPLE.

Present Tense
  Me Thee Him
I who do not (?), ........ ..esenoowaunan, ..ahsewugan,
thou, ..esewunan ........ ..ahsewudan,
he, ..esigwan, ..esenoogwan, ..ahsigwan,
we (ex.), ........ ..egóosewunan, ..ahsewungidan,
we (in.), ........ ........ ..ahsewungan,
you, ..esewagwan, ........ ..ahsewagwan,
they, ..esegwanug, ..esenoogwanug, ..ahsegwanug,
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I who do not (?), ........ ........ ..esenoonenuhgoogogwan, ..ahsewuganug.
thou, ..esewaungan, ........ ........ ..ahsewudanug.
he who, ..esewungedan, ..esenoowungwan, ..esenoowagwan, ..ahsigwan.
we (ex.), ........ ........ ..egoósewagwan, ..ahsewungidanug.
we (in.), ........ ........ ........ ..ahsewunganug.
you, ..esewaungan, ........ ........ ..ahsewagwanug.
they who ..esewungedanug, ..esenoowungwanug, ..esenoowagwanug, ..ahsegwanug.
 
Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him
I who did not (?), ........ ..esenowaunbaunan, ..ahsewugibunan,
thou, ..esewunbunan, ........ ..ahsewudibunan,
he, ..esigoobunan, ..esenoogobunan, ..ahsigobunan
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I who did not (?) ........ ........ ..esenóonenuhgoogobunan, ..ahsewugwahbunan.
thou, ..esewaungebunan, ........ ........ ..ahsewudwahbunan.
he, ..esewungedebunan, ..esenowungobunan, ..esenoowagoobunan, ..ahsigoobunan.

Passive Voice. - Indicative Mood.
Example. Par. I.-AUN.

Present Tense
Positive.   Negative.
Newahbumegomedoog, I am seen (?) kahween newahbumegosemedoog.
Kewahbumegomedoog, thou art seen, kahween kewahbumegosemedoog.
Wahbumahdoog, he is seen, kahween wahbumahsedoog.
Owahbumegodooganun, he is seen by him, kahween owahbumegosedoganun.
Newahbumegomenahdoog, we are seen, kahween newahbumegosemenahdoog.
Kewahbumegoomwahdoog, you are seen, kahween kewahbumegosimwahdoog.
Wahbumahdoganug, they are seen, kahween wahbumahsedoganug.
 
Bun Tense.
Wahbumegoowaunbaun, I was seen (?) wahbumegoosewaunbaun.

 
PARTICIPLE.
Present Tense
Positive.   Negative.
Wuhyahbumegowaunan, I who am seen, wuhyahbumegosewaunan.
Wuhyahbumegowunan, thou who art seen, wuhyahbumegosewunan.
Wuhyahbumahwindan, he who is seen, wuhyahbumahsewindan.
Wuhyahbumegoogwanun, he who is seen by him, wuhyahbumegosegwanun.
Wuhyahbumegowaungan, we who are seen, wuhyahbumegosewaungan.
Wuhyahbumegowagwan, ye who are seen, wuhyahbumegosewagwan.
Wuhyahbumahwindanug, they who are seen, wuhyahbumahsewindanug.
 
Bun Tense.
Wuhyahbumegowaunbaunan, I who was seen, wuhyahbumegosewaunbaunan.
Wuhyahbumegowunbunan, thou who wast seen, wuhyahbumegosewunbunan.
Wuhyahbumahwindebunan, he who was seen, wuhyahbumahsewindebunan.
Wuhyahbumegogobunanun, he who was seen by him, wuhyahbumegosegobunanun.

 

THE DUBITATIVE. - (Inanimate.)

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Example. Par. VII.-DAUN.

Present Tense.
Positive.   Negative.
Ne-wahbundahnahdoog, I see it (?) kahween ne.. dunsenahdoog.
Ke-wahbundahnahdoog, thou seest it, kahween ke.. dunsenahdoog.
O-wahbundahnahdoog, he sees it, kahween o.. dunsenahdoog.
Ne-wahbundahminahdoog, we see it (ex.) kahween ne..dunseminahdoog.
Ke-wahbundahnahwahdoog, you see it, kahween ke..dunsenahwahdoog.
O-wahbundahnahwahdoog, they see it, kahween o..dunsenahwahdoog.
 
Bun Tense.
Wahbundumoowaunbaun, I did see it (?) wahbundunsewaunbaun.
Wahbundumoowunbun, thou, wahbundunsewunbun.
Wahbundumoogoobun, he, wahbundunsigoobun.
 

 
PARTICIPLE.
Present Tense
Positive.   Negative.
Wuhyahbundumoowaunan, I who see it (?) ..dunsewaunan.
Wuhyahbundumoowunan, thou who, ..dunsewunan.
Wuhyahbundumoogwan, he who, ..dunsegwan.
Wuhyahbundamoowaungan, we who (ex.) ..dunsewaungan.
Wuhyahbundumoowungan, we who (in.) ..dunsewungan.
Wuhyahbundumoowagwan, you who, ..dunsewagwan.
Wuhyahbundumoogwanug, they who, ..dunsegwanug.
 
Bun Tense.
Wubyahbundumoowaunbaunan, I who did see it (?) ..dunsewaunbaunan.
Wuhyahbundumoowunbunan, thou who, ..dunsewunbunan.
Wuhyahbundumoogobunan, he who, ..dunsigoobunan.

previous | contents | next