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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874


Modifications of the Transitive Verb.

The Reflective
The Reciprocal
The Accommodative
The Causative


Modifications of the Transitive Verb.

The modifications of the transitive verb are five.

A. - The Reflective: Which implies an action done to oneself, and is formed from verbs of the lst, 3rd, and 4th Paradigms, by dropping the pronominal prefix, and changing AUN into EDEZO, MAUN into NDEZO; from the 2nd Paradigm, by changing UHWAUN into AHDEZO or AUSO; from the 5th Paradigm, by changing WAUN into ODEZO. Thus: osahgeäun, he loves him; sahgeëdezo, he loves himself; o-puhketáwaun, he beats him; puhketáödezo, he beats himself.

B. - The Reciprocal: Implies mutual action, or doing for or to one another. The lst person plural is formed as above from the lst, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Paradigms, by substituting DEMIN for DEZO, and prefixing ne, ke. Thus: We love one another, nesahgeëdemin.

C. - The Accommodative: Implies doing for another, seeing or hearing something belonging to or relating to another, &c, &c. It is formed from verbs of the 7th and 8th Paradigms, by changing DAUN into DUMUHWAUN, TOON into TUMUHWAUN. It may also be formed from many neuter verbs of the four first Paradigms, by adding TUHWAUN to the end vowel and placing the pronominal prefix. Thus: Owahbundumuhwaun, he sees something belonging to him; onebotuhwaun, he dies for him.

D. - The Causative: Implies causing, obliging, making do. It is formed from verbs of the 7th and 8th Paradigms by changing DAUN into DUHAUN, TOON' into TUHAUN. Thus: Owahbunduhaun, he makes him see it.

E.- The Frequentative: Formed on the same rule as neuter verbs, which see, page 34.



Conjugated as the 4th Paradigm of the intransitive verb (ekedo). Thus:-

Indicative, Present.
  Positive Negative
I love myself, ninsahgeëdiz kahween nin..dezoose.
Thou lovest thyself, kesahgeëdiz, kahween ke..dezoose.
He loves himself, sahgeëdezo, kahween ..dezoose.
We love ourselves, ninsahgeëdezomin, kahween nin..dezoosemin.
You love yourselves, kesahgeëdezoom, kahween ke..dezooseem.
They love themselves, sahgeëdezoowug, kahween ..dezoosewug.
Love thyself, sahgeëdezoon, kago ..dezookan.
Let us love ourselves, sahgeëdezoodah, kago ..dezoosedah.
Love yourselves, sahgeëdezooyook, kago ..dezookagoon.
I who love myself, suhyahgeëdezoyaun, ..dezosewaun.
Thou who lovest thyself, suhyahgeëdezoyun, ..dezosewun.
He who loves himself, suhyahgeëdezood, ..dezosig.
We who love ourselves, suhyahgeëdezoyaung, ..dezosewaung.
You who live yourselves, suhyahgeëdezoyag, ..dezosewag.
They who love themselves, suhyahgeëdezoojig, ..dezosegoog.
If they love themselves, kishpin sahgeëdezoowaud, ..dezosigwah.

Note.- Reflective verbs ending in auso are conjugated in the same manner, thus: Nenoondaus kenoondáus, noondauso. This is a favorite reflex form for accommodative verbs, thus: O-guhnoodumuhwaun, he speaks for him; guhnoodumauso, he speaks for himself.



Conjugated as the 3rd Paradigm of the neuter verb, (poose). Thus:

Indicative, Present.
  Positive Negative
We love each other, ninsahgeëdemin kahween nin..desemin
We love each other, (incl.) kesahgeëdemin, kahween ke..desemin.
You love each other, kesahgeëdim, kahween ke..deseem.
They love each other, sahgeëdewug, kahween ..desewug.
Love one another, sahgeëdeyook, kago ..dekagoon.
Let us love one another, sahgeëdedah, kago ..desedah.
We who love each other, suhyahgeëdeyaung, ..desewaung.
We who love each other, (incl.) suhyahgeëdeyung, ..deaewung.
Ye who love each other, suhyahgeëdeyag, ..desewag.
They who love each other, suhyahgeëdejig, ..desegoog.
If they love each other, kishpin sahgeëdewaud, ..desigwah.
To love one another, che-sahgeëding, ..desing.

Note. - This and the reflective may be formed from the accommodative by changing uhmuhwaun into uhmahdezo and uhmahdemin.



Conjugated as the 2nd Paradigm of the transitive verb, (o-noonduhwaun).

Indicative, Present.
  Positive Negative
I make it for him, nind-ozhetumuhwah, kahween ..wahse.
Thou makest it for him, kid-ozhetumuhwah, kahween ..wahse.
He makes it for him, od-ozhetumuhwaun, kahween ....wahseen.
We make it for him, nind-ozhetumuhwahnaun, kahween ..wahsenaun.
You make it for him, kid-ozhetumuhwahwah, kahween ..wahsewah.
They make it for him, od-ozhetumuhwahwaun, kahween ..wahsewaun.
Make it for him, ozhetumowh, kago ..muhwahkan.
Let us make it for him, ozhetumuhwahdah, kago ..muhwahsedah.
Make ye it for him, ozhetumuhwik, kago ..muhwahkagoon.
I who make it for him, wazhetumuhwug, ..wahsewug.
Thou who makest it for him, wazhetumuhwud, ..wahsewud.
He who makes it for him, wazhetumuhwaud, ..wahsig.
We who make it for him, wazhetumuhwaung, ..wahsewaung.
You who make it for him, wazhetumuhwag, ..wahsewag.
They who make it for him, wazhetumuhwahjig, ..wahsegoog.
If they make it for him, kishpin ozhetumuhwaud, ..wahsegwah.
I am made for him, nind-ozhetumahgo,  

Note.- Accommodative verbs ending in tuhwaun are conjugated in prescisely the same manner as those ending in tumuhwaun.



Conjugated as the 1st Paradigm of the transitive verb, (sahgeäun).

Indicative, Present.
  Positive Negative
I make him see it, ne-wahbunduhah, kahween ..duhahse.
Thou makest him see it, ke-wahbunduhah, kahween ..duhahse.
He makes him see it, o-wahbunduhaun, kahween ....duhahseen.
We make him see it, ne-wahbunduhahnaun, kahween ..duhahsenaun.
You make it for him, ke-wahbunduhahwah, kahween ..duhahsewah.
They make him see it, o-wahbunduhahwaun, kahween ..duhahsewaun.
Make him see it, wahbunduh, kago ..duhahkan.
Let us make him see it, wahbunduhahdah, kago ..duhahsedah.
Make ye him see it, wahbunduhik, kago ..duhahkagoon.
I who make him see it, wuhyahbunduhug, ..duhahsewug.
Thou who makest him see it, wuhyahbunduhud, ..duhahsewud.
He who makes him see it, wuhyahbunduhaud, ..duhahsig.
We who make him see it, wuhyahbunduhaung, ..duhahsewaung.
You who make him see it, wuhyahbunduhag, ..duhahsewag.
They who make him see it, wuhyahbunduhjig, ..duhahsegoog.
If they make him see it, kishpin wuhyahbunduhwaud, ..duhahsigwah.
I am made to see it, ne-wahbunduhego, kahween ..duhegoose.
Thou art made to see it, ke-wahbunduhego, kahween ..duhegoose.
He is made to see it, wahbunduhah, kahween ..duhahse.
Passive, Participle.
I who is made to see it, wuhyahbunduhind, ..ahsewind.

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