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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874


Examples of Paradigms.
Example of Paradigm I. (Passive Voice.)

Transitive Verb - Animate. Passive Voice.
Indicative Mood
Conditional Mood


Transitive Verb - Animate. Passive Voice.
Paradigm I. -AUN.

Indicative Mood
Present Tense
Positive Negative
I am seen, newahbumegoo, kahween ne..egoose.
thou art seen, kewahbumegoo, kahween ke..egoose.
he is seen, wahbumah, kahween ..ahse.
he is seen by, owahbumegoon, kahween o..egooseen.
his is seen, owahbumemaun, kahween oemahseen.
we are seen (excl.), newahbumegoomin, kahween ne..egoosemin.
we are seen (incl.), kewahbumegoomin, kahween ke..egoosemin.
you are seen, kewahbumegoom, kahween ke..egooseem.
they are seen, wahbumahwug, kahween o..ahsewug.
they are seen by, owahbumegoowaun, kahween o..egoosewaun.
Positive Negative
I have been seen, ningewahbumegoo, kahween ninge..egoose.
thou hast been seen, kegewahbumegoo, kahween kege..egoose.
he has been seen, kewahbumah, kahween ke..ahse.
Positive Negative
I shall be seen, ningahwahbumegoo, kahween ningah..egoose.
thou wilt be seen, kegahwahbumegoo, kahween kegahe..egoose.
he will be seen, tah-wahbumah, kahween tah..ahse.
Bun Tense
Positive Negative
I used to be seen, newahbumegoonahbun, kahween ne..egoosenahbun.
thou used to be seen, kewahbumegoonahbun, kahween ke..egoosenahbun.
he used to be seen, wahbumahbun, kahween wahbumahsebun.
we used to be see. (ex.), ne-wahbumegoomenahbun, kahween ne..gooseminahbun.
you used to be seen, ke-wahbumegoomwahbun, kahween ke..egoosimwahbun.
they used to be seen, wahbumahbuneeg, kahween wahbumahsebuneeg.
Plulerfect Tense
Positive Negative
I had been seen, ningewahbumegoonahbun, kahween ninge..egoosenahbun.
thou hadst been seen, kegewahbumegoonahbun, kahween kege..egoosenahbun.
he had been seen, kewahbumahbun, kahween ke..ahsebun.

Conditional Mood
Positive Negative
I would be seen, nindahwahbumedoo, kahween nindah..egoose.
thou wouldst be seen, kedahwahbumegoo, kahween kedah..egoose.
he would be seen, tahwahbumah kahween tah..ahse.
I w'd have been seen, nindahgewahbumegoo, kahween nindahge..egoose.

Positive Negative
if I be seen, kishpin wahbumegooyaun, kishpin wahbumegoosewaun.
if thou be seen, kishpin wahbumegooyun, kishpin wahbumegoosewun.
if he be seen, kishpin wahbumind, kishpin wahbumahsewind.
if they be seen, kishpin wahbumindwah, kishpin wahbumahsewindwah.
if I was seen, kishpin wahbumegooyaunbaun, kishpin wahbumegoosewaunbaun.
if thou wert seen, kishpin wahbumegooyunbun, kishpin wahbumegoosewunbun.
if he were seen, kishpin wahbumindebun, kishpin wahbumahsewindebun.

Positive Negative
I who am seen, wuhyahbumegooyaun, wuhyahbumegoosewaun.
thou who art aeen, wuhyahbumegooyun, wuhyahbumegoosewun.
he who is seen, wuhyahbumind, wuhyahbumahsewind.
his who is seen, wuhyahbumemind, wuhyahbumemahsewind.
he who is seen by, wuhyahbumegood, wuhyahbumegoosig.
we who are seen (excl.), wuhyahbumegooyaung, wuhyahbumegoosewaung.
we who are seen (incl.), wuhyahbumegooyung wuhyahbumegoosewung.
you who are seen, wuhyahbumegooyeg, wuhyahbumegoosewag.
they who are seen, wuhyahbumindjig, wuhyahbumahsewindjig.
they who are seen by, wuhyahbumegoojig, wuhyahbumegoosegoog.
Positive Negative
I who have been seen, kahwahbumegooyaun, kahwahbumegoosewaun.
thou who hast been seen, kahwahbumegooyun, kahwahbumegoosewun.
Positive Negative
I who shall be seen, kawahbunegooyaun, kawahbumegoosewaun.
thou who wilt be seen, kawahbumegooyun, kawahbumegoosewun.
Bun Tense.
Positive Negative
I who was seen, wuhyahbumegooyaunbaun, wuhyahbumegoosewaunbaun.
thou who wert seen, wuhyahbumegooyunbun, wuhyahbumegoosewunbun.
he who was seen, wuhyahbumindebun, wuhyahbumahsewindebun.
we who were seen (excl.) wuhyahbumegooyungidibun, wuhyahbumegoosewungidibun.
you who were seen, wuhyahbumegooyagoobun, wuhyahbumegoosewagoobun.
they who were seen, wuhyahbumindebuneeg, wuhyahbumahsewindebuneeg.
Positive Negative
I who had been seen, kahwuhyahbumegooyaunbaun, kahwuhyahbumegoosewaunbaun.

Paradigm I. -AUN.

1. Omequanemaun. He remembers him.
2. Owahbumaun. He sees him.
3. Osheenganemaun. He hates him.
4. Odenanemaun. He permits him.
5. Owahnanemaun. He forgets him.
6. Okekanemaun. He knows him.
7. Oshahwanemaun. He has mercy on him.
8. Onuhneebikemaun. He scolds him.
9. Odozheän. He makes him.
9. Osahgeäun. He loves him.

I should remember him if I had seen him; Nindahmequanemah kishpin kewahbumugibun.
He remembers us because he knows us; Kemequanemegonaun oonji kekanemenung.
When I see you I shall know you; Uhpe wahbumenenuhgoog kegahkekanemenenim.
Do not hate me; kago sheenganemeshekan.
Have mercy on me thou merciful one; Shahwanemeshin keen shawanjegayun.
Be merciful to those who hate thee; Shahwanim egewh shaunganemekig.
Do not scold him (pl.); Kago nuhneebikemahkagoon.
He does not like to be scolded; Kahween minwandunse chenuhneebikenimd.
We must not allow him to forget us; Kahween kedahenenemahsenaun chewuhnanemenung.
He is hated by his people; Osheenganemegoon enewh oduhnishenahbamun.
See him; Wahbum.
Love him; sahge.
If I love him, he will love me; Kishpin sahgeüg ningahsahgeik.

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