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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874

 

Examples of Paradigms.
Transitive Verb - Animate. Positive Form.
Paradigm I. -AUN.

INDICATIVE MOOD
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I ... ke...in ne...ah ne...emaun
thou ke... ... ke...ah ke...emaun
he ne...ik ke...ik o...aun o...aun*
we (ex.) ... ke...ego ne...ahnaun ne...emahnaun
we (in.) ... ... ke...ahnaun ke...emahnaun
you ke...im ... ke...ahwah ke...emahwaun
they ne...egoog ke...egoog o...ahwaun o...ahwaun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I ... ... ke..enenim ne..aug
thou ke..emin ... ... ke..aug
he ne..egonaun ke..egonaun ke..egowah o..aun
we (ex.) ... ... ke..egoom ne..ahnahnig
we (in.) ... ... ... ke..ahnahnig
you ke..emin ... ... ke..ahwaug
they ne..egonahnig ke..egonahnig ke..egowaug o..ahwaun
*Note. - He-his, is necessarily followed by a noun in the third third person,
to which the proper ending must be given. See. Thus, he sees his father, owahbumaun osene.
Note. - His-him, them, is o--aune. His, with other pronouns, me, thee, &c., the same as he.

Perfect Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I have ... kege..in ningah..ah ninge..emaun
thou kege.. ... kegah..ah kege..emaun
he ninge..ik kege..ik ogah..aun oge..aun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I have ... ... kege..enenim ninge..aug
thou kege..emin ... ... kege..aug
he ninge..egonaun kege..egonaun kege..egowah oge..aun

Future Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I will ... kegah..in ningah..ah ningah..emaun
thou kegah.. ... kegah..ah kegah..emaun
he ningah..ik kegah..ik ogah..aun ogah-aun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I will ... ... kegah..enenim ningah..aug
thou kegah..emin ... ... kegah..aug
he ningah..egonaun kegah..egonaun kegah..egowah ogah..aun

Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I did ... ke..enenahbun ne..ahbun ne..emahbuneen
thou ke...enahbun ... ke..ahbun ke..emahbuneen
he ne...egobun ke..egobun o..ahbuneen o..ahbuneen
we (ex.) ... ke..egonahbun ne..ahnahbun ne..emahnahbuneen
we (in.) ... ... ke..ahnahbun ke..emahnahbuneen
you ke...imwahbun ... ke..ahwahbun ke..emahwahbuneen
they ne...egoobuneeg ke..egobuneeg o..ahwahbuneen o..ahwahbuneen
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I did ... ... ke..enenimwahbun ne..ahbuneeg
thou ke..eminahbun ... ... ke..ahbuneeg
he ne..egonahbun ke..egonahbun ke..egowahbun o..ahbuneen
we (ex.) ... ... ke..egoomwahbun ne..ahnahbuneeg
we (in.) ... ... ... ke..ahnahbuneeg
you ke..eminahbun ... ... ke..ahwahbuneeg
they ne..egonahbuneeg ke..egonahbuneeg ke..egowahbuneeg o..ahwahbuneen

Pluperfect Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I had ... kege..enenahbun ninge..ahbun ninge..emahbuneen
thou kege..enahbun ... kege..ahbun kege..emahbuneen
he ninge..egoobun kege..egoobun oge..ahbuneen oge..ahbuneen
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I had ... ... kege..enenimwahbun ninge..ahbuneeg
thou kege..eminahbun ... ... kege..ahbuneeg
he ninge..egonahbun kege..egoowahbun kege..egoowahbun oge..ahbuneen

CONDITIONAL MOOD
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I would ... kedah..in nindah..ah nindah..emaun
thou kedah.. ... kedah..ah kedah..emaun
he nindah..ik kedah..ik odah..aun odah..aun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I would ... ... kedah..enenim nindah..aug
thou ... ... ... kedah..aug
he nindah..egonaun kedah..egonaun kedah..egowah odah..aun

Past Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I would have ... kedahge..in nindahge..ah nindahge..emaun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I would have ... ... kedahge..enenim nindahge..aug

IMPERATIVE MOOD
  Me Thee Him His
...thou ..eshin ... ... ..im
let him ningah..ik ... ogah..aun ogah..aun
let us ... ... ..ahdah ..emahdah
..ye ..eshig ... ..ik ..emik
let them ningah.egoog ... ogah..ahwaun ogah..ahwaun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
...thou ..eshenaum ... ... ...
let him ningah..egonaun ... ... ogah..aun
let us ... ... ... ..ahdahnig
..ye ..eshenaum ... ... ..ik
let them ningah..egonahnig ... ... ogah..ahwaun

Inanimate object
  Me Thee Him His
it ne..egoon ke..egoon o..egoon o..egoon
they ne..egoonun ke..egoonun o..egoonun o..egoonun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
it ne..egoomin ke..egoomin ke..egoonahwah o..egoonahwah
they ne..egoomin ke..egoomin ke..egoonahwaun o..egoonahwaun

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him His
if I ... ..enaun ..ug ..emug
if thou ..eeyun ... ..ud ..emud
if he ..id ..ik ..aud ..aud
if his ..emid ..ik ..ahnid ..ahnid
if they ..ewaud ..ikwah ..ahwaud ..ahwaud
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
if I ... ... ..enenuhgoog ..ugwah
if thou ..eeyaung ... ... ..udwah
if he ..eyungid ..enung ..enag ..aud
if his ..eyungid ..enung ..enag ..ahnid
if they ..eyungidwah ..enungwah ..enagwah ..ahwaud

Bun Tense
  Me Thee Him His
if I did ... ..enaunbaun ..ugebun ..emugebun
if thou ..eeyunbun ... ..udebun ..emudebun
if he ..epun ..ikebun ..ahpun ..ahpun
if they ..ewahpun ..ikwahpun ..ahwahpun ..ahwahpun
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
if I did ... ... ..enenuhgoogobun ..ugwagbun
if thou ..eeyaungebun ... ... ..udwahbun
if he ..eyungedebun ..enungoobun ..enagoobun ..ahpun
if they ..eyungidwabun ..enungwahbun ..enagwahbun ..ahwahpun

PARTICIPLE
Present Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I who ... ..enaun ..ug ..emug
thou ..eeyun ... ..ud ..emud
he ..id ..ik ..aud ..aud
his ..emid ..ik ..ahnid ..ahnid
we (ex.) ... ..egoyun ..aungid ..emaungid
we (in.) ... ... ..ung ..emung
you ..eeyag ... ..ag ..emag
they ..ejig ..ekig ..ahjig ..ahjig
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I who ... ... ..enenuhgoog ..ugig
thou ..eeyung ... ... ..udjig
he ..eyungid ..enung ..enag ..aud
his ..eyungid ..enung ..enag ..ahnid
we (ex.) ... ... ..egoyag ..aungejig
we (in.) ... ... ... ..ungoog
you ..eeyaung ... ... ..agoog
they ..eyungejig ..enungoog ..enagoog ..ahjig

Perfect Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I who have ... kah..enaun kah..ug kah..emug
I who have ... ... kah..enenuhgoog kah..ugig
thou kah..eeyun ... kah..ud kah..emud
thou kah..eeyaung ... ... kah..udjig
he kah..id kah..ik kah..aud kah..aud
he kah..eyungid kah..enung kah..enag kah..aud
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them

Future Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I who will ... ka..enaun ka..ug ka..emug
I who will ... ... ka..enenuhgoog ka..ugig
thou ka..eeyun ... ka..ud ka..emud
thou ka..eeyaung ... ... ka..udjig
he ka.id ka..ik ka..aud ka..aud
he ka..eyungid ka..enung ka..enag ka..aud
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them

Pluperfect Tense
  Me Thee Him His
I who had ... kah..enaunbaun kah..ugebun kah..emugebun
thou kah..eeyunbun ... kah..udebun kah..emudebun
he kah..epun kah..ikebun. kah..ahpun kah..ahpun
they kah..epuneeg kah..ikebuneeg kah..ahpuneeg kah..ahpuneeg
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
I who had ... ... kah..enenuhgoogobun kah..ugebuneeg
thou kah..eeyaungebun ... ... kah..udebuneeg
he kah..eyungedebun kah..enungoobun kah..enagoobun kah..ahpun
they kah..eyungedebuneeg kah..enungoobuneeg kah..anagoobuneeg kah..ahpuneeg

Inanimate object
  Me Thee Him His
it ..egooyaun ..egooyun ..egood ..egood
they that ..egooyaun ..egooyun ..egood ..egood
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
it ..egooyaung ..egooyung ..egooyag ..egoojig
they that ..egooyaung ..egooyung ..egooyag ..egoojig

PERIODICAL SUBJUNCTIVE
  Me Thee Him His
whenever I ... ..enaunin ..ugin ..emugin
whenever thou ..eyunin ... ..udin ..emudin
whenever he ..ejin ..ikin ..aujin ..aujin
whenever we (ex.) ... ..egoyunin ..aungejin ..emaungin
whenever we (in.) ... ... ..ungoon ..emungoon
whenever you ..eyagoon ... ..agoon ..emagoon
whenever they ..ewahjin ..ekwahjin ..ahwahjin ..ahwahjin
 
  Us ( excl.) Us (incl.) You Them
whenever I ... ... ..enenuhgoogin ..ugwahnin
whenever thou ..eyaungin ... ... ..udwahnin
whenever he ..eyungejin ..enungoon ..enagoon ..aujin
whenever we (ex.) ... ... ..egoyagoon ..aungidwahjin
whenever we (in.) ... ... ... ..ungwahjin
whenever you ..eyaungin ... ... ..agwahjin
whenever they ..eyungidwahjin ..enungwahjin ..enagwahjin ..ahwahjin

Examples: -

Indicative Mood. - He remembers me, nemequanemik; I have seen thee, kege wahbumin; We shall forget you, kegahwuhnanemegoom.

Conditional Mood. - He would see me, nindahwahbumik; I should have seen them, nindahgewahbumaug.

Imperative Mood. - Let us see him, wahbumahdah; Hate ye him, sheenganemik; Remember me, mequanemeshin.

Subjunctive. - If I see him, kishpin wahbumug; If we have seen thee, kishpin kewahbumegooyun; That we remember him, chemequanemung.

Pariciple. - I who see you, wuhyahbumenenuhgoog; He who sees me, wuhyahbumid; He who has forgotten thee, owh kahwuhnanemik.

Periodical Subjunctive. - Whenever theu rememberst me, maquanemeeyunin; Whenever he sees me, wuhyahbumejin.

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