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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874

 

The Transitive Verb

Paradigms
Formation of the Participle
A List of Verbs of each Paradigm

 

The Transitive Verb.

As has been remarked, the inflections of the transitive verb are very voluminous, owing th their including the objective case of the pronoun.

The transitive verb has eight paradigms, which end respectively at the third person singularm present, indicative, in AUN, UHWAUN, NAUN, SAUN, WAUN, NUN, DAUN (or AUN), and TOON (or DOON).

Of these the first five are animate only. Thus: Owahbuhmaun, he sees him; onoonduhwaun, he hears him.

The sixth paradigm (NUN, inanim. N) may be employed with either an animate or inanimate object. This form presents a convenient mode giving a transitive power to a neuter verb, thus: Megewa, he gives away, o-megewan, he gives it away; omegewanun, he gives it (an anim. object) away. This paradigm is more used with animate objects than with persons or aminals; when employed with the latter, it is usual to supply the word weeyowh (his body). Thus, I sold him, ninge-uhdahwan weeyowh (lit. I sold his body).

The two last paradigms are used with inanimate objects only. Thus: Owahbundaun, he sees it. Osahgetoon, he loves it.

In the following tables the beginning and ending of each word only is given, and the stem of the verb (i.e. the third person singular, presrnt, indicative, without the pronoun prefix and without the end syllable) must be supplied. Thus, in the Dictionary, we findm under See v.t. 1, o-wahbunaum, he sees him; the of this is wahbum; hence, referring to the tables, we have, thou see me, kewahbum; they see us, newahbumegonahnig.

Voices are two, the active and passive.

Moods are the same as those of the neuter verbs.

Tenses also are the same, but for sake of brevity some of the persons in the simpler tenses are omitted.

Persons. The second third person is not required in the active voice of transitive verbs animate, its place being supplied by the second thirs person singularm present, of the passive voice, the order of the sentence becoming inverted; thus, for, his father sees him, we must say, owahbumegoon osun, he is seen by his father. The indefinite person also is not required, the passive voice again taking its place; thus, for; one sees him, we say, he is seen.

Transitive verbs are sometimes governed by an inanimate object, thus The needle pricks him, o-puhcheeshahgoon shahboonegun. An example of this form is given in the Tables.

In the participle, the third person, both sibgular and plural, may (as in the neuter verb) be put in the objective case by changing AUD to AHNEJIN, DUNG to DUMENEJIN, TOON to TOONEJIN. Thus: Wuhyahbumaud, he who sees him; wuhyahbumahnejin, him, whom he sees. All the other persons of the participle may be used both nominatively and objectively; thus, wuhyahbunug, means both I who see him, and he whom I see. Wuhyahbumenenuhgoog, means I who see you, or ye whom I see. Wazhetooyaun, I wo make it, or that which I make. The two first persons plural have already been remarked upon under the Neuter Verb.

The negative form of the first paradigm is given in a separate table. The negative of the other paradigms may readily be formed on the same principle, with a little thought and practice.

The Modifications of the Transitive Verb are the reflectie, the reciprocal, the accomodative, and the causative.

The Dubitative has been explained.

Formation of the Participle. The formation of the first syllable has been given under Neuter Verb, and the following table shews the change of the last syllable: -

Par's. I. to V. -AUNchanges to AUD,thus, owáhbumaun, he sees him, wuhyáhbumaud.

Par. VI. -NUN, -N
changes to D,thus, onesáun, he kills him, nesáud.
od-ahpánemonun, he trusts him, apánemood.
PAr. VII. -AUNchanges to UNG,thus, owahnumdaun, he sees it, wuhyahbundung.
Par. VIII. -OONchanges to OOD,thus osáhgetoon, he loves it, suhyáhgetood.

 

A List of Verbs of each Paradigm.

Par. I. -AUN.
wáhbum, o-wahbumaun, he sees him.
mequánim, o-mequánemaun, he remembers him.
kekanim, o-kekánemaun, he knows him.
sáhge, o-sáhgeäun, he loves him.
wábin, o-wábenaun, he rejects him.
enegúh, od-enegúhaun, he wrongs him.

Par. II. -UHWAUN.
noond, o-nóonduhwaun, he hears him.
wéendum,, o-wéendumuhwaun, he tells him.
nebóot, o-nebóotuhwaun, he dies for him.
náhsik, o-náhsekuhwaun, he approaches him.

Par. III. -NAUN.*
mee, o-méenaun, he gives it to him.
kah, o-káhnaun, he hides him.
guhnóo, o-guhnóonaun, he speaks to him.

Par. IV. -SAUN.
ne, o-nesáun, he kills him.
uh, od-uhsáun, he puts him.
goo, o-goosáun, he fears him.

Par. V. -WAUN.
puhkitá, opuhketáwaun, he strikes him.
chahgis, o-cháhgiswaun, he burns him.
aum, od-aumwáun, he eats him.

Par. VI. -NUN, -N.
megewa, o-megewáun, he gives him away.
kemoode, o-kemóodin, he steals it.
wuhnéeka, o-wuhnéekan, he forgets to take it.
uhtáuso, od-uhtáusoon, he stores it up.

Par. VII. -DAUN (or -AUN).
wahbun, o-wuhbundáun, he sees it.
teban, o-tebándaun, he owns it.
mequan, o-mequándaun, he remembers it.
puhketa, o-puhketáäun, he strikes it.
chahgis, o-cháhgisaun, he burns it.

Par. VIII. -TOON (or -DOON).
sahge, o-sáhgetoon, he loves it.
ozhe, od-úzhetoon, he makes it.
kushke, o-kúshketoon, he can do it.
pee, opéedoon, he brings it.

* Many verbs ending in naun (e.g., wabenaun) belong to the first Paradigm. The only way of distinguishing them is by their inanimate ending. Verbs ending in naun of the 3rd Paradigm, change to TAUN or TOON in the inanimate; those of the 1st Paradigm retain the same ending.

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