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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874


Modifications of the Neuter Verb.

Modification a. (excessive)
Modification b. (dissimulative)
Modification c. (compassionate)
Modification d. (causative)
Modification e. (frequentative)


Modifications of the Neuter Verb.

Positive. Mod. a. -shke. (excessive) Negative
Nin-nebaushk, I sleep too much, Kahween nin-nebaushkese.
Ke-nebaushk, thou sleepest too much, Kahween ke-nebaushkese.
nabaushke, he sleeps too much, Kahween nebaushkese.
nebaushkewun, his sleeps too much, Kahween nebaushkesewun.
nebaushkim, one sleeps too much, Kahween nebaushkeseem.
Nin-nebaushkemin, we (ex.) sleep too much, Kahween nin-nebaushkesemin.
Ke-nebaushkim, you sleep too much, Kahween ke-nebaushkeseem.
nebaushkewug, they sleep too much, Kahween nebaushkesewug.
Nabaushkeyaun, I who over sleep, nabaushkesewaun.
Nabaushkeyun, thou who over sleepst, nabaushkesewun.
Nabaushkid  a drowsy fellow,  nabaushkesig.
And so on conjugated throughout as Paradigm 3.

Mod. b. -kauso. (dissimulative.)
Nin-nebaushkauso, I pretend to sleep, Kahween nin-nebaushkausose.
Ke-nebaushkauso, thou pretendest to sleep, Kahween ke-nebaushkausose.
nebaushkauso, he pretends to sleep, Kahween nebaushkausose.
nebaushkausowun, his pretends to sleep, Kahween nebaushkausosewun.
nebaushkausoom, one pretends to sleep, Kahween nebaushkausoseem.
Nin-nebaushkausomin, we (ex.) pretend to sleep, Kahween nin-nebaushkausosemin.
Ke-nebaushkausoom, you pretend to sleep, Kahween ke-nebaushkausoseem.
nebaushkausowug, they pretend to sleep, Kahween nebaushkausosewug.
Nabahkausoyaun, I who feign sleep, Nabahkausosewaun.
Nabahkausoyun, thou who feignest sleep, Nabahkausosewun.
Nabahkausood, a foxer, Nabahkausosig.
And so on conjugated throughout as Paradigm 4.

Mod. c. -she. (compassionate.)
Nin-nebaush, I excite pity being asleep, Kahween nin-nebaushese.
Ke-nebaush, thou excitest pity being asleep, Kahween ke-nebaushese.
nebaushe, he excites pity being asleep, Kahween nebaushese.
nebaushewun, his excites pity being asleep, Kahween nebaushesewun.
nebaushim, one excites pity being asleep, Kahween nebausheseem.
Nin-nebaushemin we (ex.) excite pity being asleep, Kahween nin-nebaushesemin.
Ke-nebaushim you excite pity being asleep, Kahween ke-nebausheseem.
nebaushewug, they excite pity being asleep, Kahween nebaushesewug.
Nabausheyaun, I the pitied sleeper, Nabaushesewaun.
Nabausheyun, thou the pitied sleeper, Nabaushesewun.
Nabaushid, a pitied sleeper, Nabaushesig.
And so on conjugated throughout as Paradigm 3.

Mod. d. -aun. (causative.)
Nin-neba-äh, I put him to sleep, Kahween nin-neba-ähse.
Ke-neba-äh, thou puttest him to sleep, Kahween ke-neba-ähse.
O-neba-äun, he puts him to sleep, Kahween o-neba-ähseen.
O-neba-äune, his puts him to sleep, Kahween o-neba-ähsene.
Nin-neba-ähnaun, we (ex.) put him to sleep, Kahween nin-neba-ähsenaun.
Ke-neba-ähwah, you put him to sleep, Kahween ke-neba-ähsewah.
O-neba-ähwaun, they put him to sleep, Kahween o-neba-ähsewaun.
Naba-üg, I who put him to sleep, Naba-ahsewug.
Naba-üd thou who puttest him to sleep, Naba-ahsewud.
Naba-äud he who puts him to sleep, Naba-ahsig.
And so on conjugated throughout as Paradigm 1.

Mod. e. (frequentative.)
Nin-nahnebah, I keep taking naps, Kahween nin-nahnebahse.
Ke-nahnebah, thou keepest taking naps, Kahween ke-nahnebahse.
nahnebah, he keeps taking naps, Kahween nahnebahse.
nahnebahwun, his keeps taking naps, Kahween nahnebahsewun.
nahnebaum, one keeps taking naps, Kahween nahnebahseem.
Nin-nahnebahmin, we (ex.) keep taking naps, Kahween nin-nahnebahsemin.
Ke-nahnebaum, you keep taking naps, Kahween ke-nahnebahseem.
nahnebahwug, they keep taking naps, Kahween nahnebahsewug.
Nuhyáh-nebáhyaun, I who often take a nap, Nuhyah-nebahsewaun.
Nuhyáh-nebáhyun, thou who often takest a nap, Nuhyah-nebahsewun.
Nuhyáh-nebáud, one who naps often, Nuhyah-nebahsig.

And so on every neuter verb according to its paradigm, prefixing the frequentative partcle according to the rule.

The neuter verb may be modified in many other ways yet by the use of prefixes, thus: the verb ezhah, he goes: prefix pe (particle of approach) and we have pe-ëzhah, he comes; prefix peme (through or by) and we have peme-ëzhah, he passes through. So also: uhne-ëzhah, he goes along; pahpah-ezhah, he goes about; uhwe-ëzhah, he is about to go; we-ëzhah, he wants to go; da-uhkóose, he is tall enough. These prefixes become part of the verb, and change for the partciple, thus: ane-ezhaud, he who goes along; wah-ezhaud, he who wants to go. A list of these prefixes, with their participial chages, is given at end of Grammar part.

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