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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874

 

The Verb Ezhah (to go) Par.1.

Indicative Mood
Conditional Mood
Imperative Mood
Subjunctive Mood
Participle

 

The Verb Ezhah (to go) Par.1.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present tense.
Positive. Negative.
Nind-ezháh, I go, Kahween nind-ezháhse, I do not go.
Kid-ezhah, thou goest, Kahween kid-ezhahse, thou dost not go.
ezhah, he (or she) goes, Kahween ezhahse, he does not go.
ezhahwun his goes Kahween ezhahsewun, his does not go.
ezhaum, one goes, Kahween ezhahseem, one does not go.
Nind-ezhahmin, we (excl.) go, Kahween nind-ezháhsemin, we (excl.) do not go.
Kid-ezhahmin we (incl.) go, Kahween kid-ezhahsemin, we (incl.) do not go.
Kid-ezhaum you go, Kahween kid-ezháhseem, you do not go.
ezhahwug they go, Kahween ezháhsewug they do not go.
 
Perfect Tense.
Ninge-ëzhah, I went, Kahween ninge-ëzhahse, I went not.
Kege-ëzhah, thou wentest, Kahween kege-ëzhahse, thou wentest not.
Ke-ëzhah, he went, Kahween ke-ëzhahse, he went not.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing ge- and ke-.
 
Future Tense.
Ningah-ezhah,* I will go,  Kahween ningah-ezhahse, I will not go.
Kegah-ezhah, thou wilt go, Kahween kegah-ezhahse, thou wilt not go.
Tah-ezhah he will go, Kahween tah-ezhahse, he will not go.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing gah and tah.
* Or ningaud-ezhah; d is sometimes thus used before a vowel.
 
Future Perfect.
Ningah-ge-ëzhah, I shall have gone, Kahween ningah-ge-ëzhahse, I shall not have gone.
Kegah-ge-ëzhah, thou wilt have gone, Kahween kegah-ge-ëzhahse, thou wilt not have gone.
Tah-ge-ëzhah, he will have gone, Kahween tah-ge-ëzhahse, he will not have gone.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing gah-ge and tah-ge.

Note. - Verbs of the fifth and sixth Paradigm, in the negative, change -um to -unse, -ummog to -unsewug, -enoog to -insewug. So, too, in the participle, -ung to -unsig, -ungig to -unsegoog, -ing to -insig, -ingig to -insegoog.
 
Bun Tense.
Positive. Negative.
Nind-ezhahnahbun, I did go, Kahween nind-ezhahsenuhbun, I did not go.
Kid-ezhahnahbun, thou didst go, Kahween kid-ezhahsenahbun, thou didst not go.
ezhahbun he did go, Kahween ezhahsebun, he did not go.
ezhahbuneen his did go, Kahween ezhahsebuneen, his did not go.
ezhaumenahbun one did go, Kahween ezhasemenahbun, one did not go.
Nind-ezhaumenahbun, we (excl.) did go, Kahween nind-ezhahsemenahbun, we (ex.) did not go.
Kid-ezhaumenahbun, we (incl.) did go, Kahween kid-ezhahsemenahbun, we (in.) did not go.
ezhahbuneeg, they did go, Kahween ezhahsebuneeg, they did not go.
 
Pluperfect.
Ninge-ëzhahnahbun, I had gone, Kahween ninge-ëzhahsenahbun, I had not gone.
Kege-ëzhahnahbun, thou hadst gone Kahween kid-ëzhahsenahbun, thou hadst not gone.
Ke-ëzhahnahbun, he had gone, Kahween ke-ëzhahsebun, he had not gone.
And so on as the foregoing merely prefixing ge- and ke-.

CONDITIONAL MOOD.
Present tense.
Positive. Negative.
Nindah-ezhah, I would go, Kahween nindah-ezhahse, I would not go.
Kidah-ezhah, thou wouldst go, Kahween kidah-ezhahse, thou wouldst not go.
Dah-ezhah, he would go, Kahween dah-ezhahse, he would not go.
Dah-ezhahwun his would go, Kahween dah-ezhahsewun, his would not go.
Dah-ezhaum, one would go, Kahween dah-ezhahseem, one would not go.
Nindah-ezhahmin, we (excl.) would go, Kahween nindah-ezhahsemin, we (excl.) would not go.
Kidah-ezhahmin we (incl.) would go, Kahween kidah-ezhahsemin, we (incl.) would not go.
Kidah-ezhaum you would go, Kahween kedah-ezhahseem, you would not go.
Dah-ezhahwug they would go, Kahween dah-ezhahsewug, they would not go.
 
Past Tense.
Nindah-ge-ëzhah, I should have gone, Kahween nindah-ge-ëzhahse, I should not have gone.
Kedah-ge-ëzhah, thou wouldst have gone, Kahween kedah-ge-ëzhahse, thou wouldst not have gone.
Dah-ge-ëzhah, he would have gone, Kahween dah-ge-ëzhahse, he would not have gone.
And so on as the present, merely introducing ge.
 
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Positive. Negative.
Ezhaun, go, go thou, Kago ezhahkan, go not, don't go.
Ezhahkun,* go, if you will Kago ezhahkan, go not, don't go.
Tah-ezhah let him go Kago tah-ezhahse, let him not go.
Ezhahdah, let us go Kago ezhahsedah, let us not go.
Ezhaug, go ye Kago ezhahkagoon, let ye not go.
Ezhahyook, go ye Kago ezhahkagoon, let ye not go.
Tah-ezhahwug, let them go, Kago tah-ezhahsewug, let them not go.
* -kun This form of the imperative, though not given, can be used also with transitive verbs.
 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
Positive. Negative.
Che-ëzhahyáun, that I go, Che-ezháhsewaun, that I go not.
Che-ezháhyun, that thou go, Che-ezhahsewun, that thou go not.
Che-ezhaud, that he go, Che-ezhahsig, that he go not.
Che-ezhahnid, that his go, Che-ezhahsenig that his go not.
Che-ezhaung, that one go, Che-ezhahsing that one go not.
Che-ezhahyáung, that we (excl.) go, Che-ezhahsewaung that we (ex.) go not.
Che-ezháhyung, that we (incl.) go, Che-ezhahsewung that we (in.) go not.
Che-ezhahyag, that you go, Che-ezhahsewag that you go not.
Che-ezhahwaud, that they go, Che-ezhahsigwah that they go not.
 
Perfect Tense
Uhpe-ke-ëzhahyaun, when I went, Uhpe-ke-ëzhahsewaun, when I went not.
Uhpe-ke-ëzhahyun when thou went Uhpe-ke-ëzhahsewun, when thou went not.
Uhpe-ke-ëzhaud when he went Uhpe-ke-ëzhasig, when he went not.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing ke
 
Future Tense.
Uhpe ka-ëzhahyaun,* when I shall go, Uhpe ka-ëzhahsewaun when I shall not go
Uhpe ka-ëzhahhyun, when thou wilt go, Uhpe ka-ëzhahsewun, when thou wilt not go
Uhpe ka-ëzhaud, when he will go, Uhpe ka-ëzhahsig, when he will not go.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing ka
* Or kad-ezhahyaun. d is often inserted thus before a vowel.
 
Future Perfect.
Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhahyaun, when I shall have gone, Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhasewaun, when I shall not have gone.
Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhahhyun, when thou wilt have gone, Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhahsewun, when thou wilt not have gone
Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhaud, when he will have gone, Uhpe ka-ge-ëzhahsig, when he will not have gone.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing ka-ge.
 
Bun Tense.
Kishpin ezháhyaunbaun, if I did go, Kishpin ezháhsewáunbaun, if I did not go.
Kishpin ezháhyunbun, if thou didst go, Kishpin ezháhsewúnbun, if thou didst not go.
Kishpin ezháhpun, if he did go, Kishpin ezháhsigobun, if he did not go.
Kishpin ezháhnepun, if his did go, Kishpin ezháhsenégobun, if his did not go.
Kishpin ezháungebun, if one did go, Kishpin ezhásingebun, if one did not go.
Kishpin ezhahyáunbegun, if we (ex.) did go, Kishpin ezhahsewáungebun, if we (ex.) did not go.
Kishpin ezháhyaugobun, if we (in.) did go, Kishpin ezhahsewúngobun, if we (in.) did not go.
Kishpin ezhahyágobun, if you did go, Kishpin ezhahsewágobun, if you did not go 
Kishpin ezhahwáhpun, if they did go, Kishpin ezhahsewáhpun, if they did not go.
 
Pluperfect.
Ke-ezháhyaunbaun, that I had gone, Ke-ezháhsewáunbaun, that I had not gone.
Ke-ezháhyunbun, that thou hadst gone Ke-ezháhsewunbun, that thou hadst not gone.
Ke-ezháhpun, that he had gone, Ke-ezháhsegobun, that he had not gone.
And so on as the foregoing merely prefixing ke.

PARICIPLE
Present Tense
Positive
Negative
Azhahyaun, I who go, Azhahsewaun, I who go not.
Azhahyun, thou who goest, Azhahsewun, thou who go not.
Azhaud, he who goes, Azhahsig, he who goes not.
Azhahnejin, him (or them) who goes, Azhahsenegoon, him (or them) who goes not.
Azhaung, one who goes, Azhahsing, one who goes not.
Azhahyaung, we (ex.) who goes, Azhahsewaung, we (ex.) who go not.
Azhahyung, we (in.) who go, Azhahsewung, we (in.) who go not.
Azhahyag, you who go, Azhahsewag, you who go not.
Azhahjig, they who go, Azhahsegoog, they wjo go not.
 
Perfect Tense.
Kah-ezhahyaun, I who went, Kah-ezhahsewaun, I who went not.
Kah-ezhahyun, thou who wentest Kah-ezhasewun, thou who wentest not.
Kah-ezhaud, he, who went Kah-ezhahsig, he who went not.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing kah-.
 
Future Tense.
Ka-ezhahyaun, I who will go, Ka-ezhahsewaun, I who will not go.
Ka-ezhahyun, thou who wilt go, Ka-ezhahsewun, thou who wilt not go.
Ka-ezhaud, he who will go, Ka-ezhahsig, he who will not go.
And so on as the present, merely prefixing ka-.
 
Future Perfect.
Ka-ge-ezhahyaun, I who shall have gone, Ka-ge-ezhahsewaun, I who shall not have gone.
Ka-ge-ezhahyun, thou who wilt have gone, Ka-ge-ezhahsewun, thou who wilt not have gone.
Ka-ge-ezhaud, he who will have gone, Ka-ge-ezhahsig, he who will not have gone.
And so on as the present merely prefixing ka-ge-.
 
But Tense.
Azhahyaunbaun, I who did go, Azhahsewaunbaun, I who did not go.
Azhahyunbun, thou who didst go, Azhahsewunbun, thou who didst not go.
Azhahpun, he, who did go, Azhahsegobun, he who did not go.
Azhahnepuneen, him (or them) who did go, Azhasenegobaneen, him or them who did not go.
Azhaungebun, one who did go, Azhasingebun, one who did not go.
Azhahyaungebun, we (ex.) who did go, Azhasewaungebun, we (ex.) who did not go.
Azhahyungobun, we (in.) who did go, Azhahsewungogun, we (in.) who did not go.
Azhahyagobun, you who did go, Azhahsewagobun, you who did not go.
Azhahpuneeg, they who did go, Azhahsegobuneeg, they who did not go.
 
Pluperfect.
Kah-ezhahyaunbaun, I who had gone, Kah-ezhahsewaunbaun, I who had not gone.
Kah-ezhahyunbun, thou who hadst gone, Kah-ezhahsewunbun, thou who hadst not gone.
Kah-ezhahpun, he who had gone, Kah-ezhahsegobun, he who had not gone.
And so on as the foregoing, merely prefixing kah-.
 
Periodical Subjunctive.
Azhahyaunin, whenever I go, Azhahsewaunin whenever I don't go.
Azhahyunin, whenever thou go, Azhahsewunin, whenever thou dost not go.
Azhahjin, whenever he goes, Azhahsegoon, whenever he does not go.
Azhaungin, whenever one goes, Azhasingin, whenever one does not go.
Azhahyaungin, whenever we (ex.) go, Azhahsewaungin, whenever we (ex.) do not go.
Azhahyungoon, whenever we (in.) go, Azhahsewungoon, whenever we (in.) do not go.
Azhahyagoon, whenever you go, Azhahsewagoon, whenever you do not go.
Azhahwahjin, whenever they go, Azhahsigwahnin, whenever they do not go.

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