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Ojebway Language:

A Manual for missionaries
and others employed among the Ojebway Indians
by Edward F. Wilson, 1874


The Adverb

Adverbs Proper
Adverb Particles
Adverbs of Affirmation and Consent
Adverbs of Denial
Adverbs of Doubt
Adverbs of Interrogation
Adverbs used Imperatively
Adverbs of Quantity
Adverbs of Comparison
Adverbial Expressions


The Adverb.

As remarked in the Introduction, here would be the proper place for the verb, but, for the reason that in the Ojebway everything depends on the verb, and nearly every part of speech may be transformed into a verb, it has been thought best to place it last on the list.

Adverbs Proper.

These are such as may be used with a verb, but separately, as wánepuzh, easily; kéemooj, seretly; páhbega, suddenly; núhagauj, gently; suhgukúj, orderly, &c. Also such words as ógeduhkummig, on the surface of the earth; ógedebeeg, on the surface of the water; neegaun, in front; ishquáyaung, behind; ogijúhyeëe, above; uhnáumuhyeëe, below; pinjéeühyeëe, within; magwáuhyeëe, among; pechéenug, just, now only.

Adverb Particles

These are prefixed to the verb, as: kéwetuh-, around; pahpah-, about; peme-, through or by; pe-, approaching; we-, intending; uhne-, proceeding; uhwe-, going to do; oonje-, proceeding from. Thus: peme-ézháh, he passes through; pahpáh-pemoosa, he walks about; pe-kuhgéque, he comes preaching. See List of Particles.

Adverbs of Affirmation and Consent.

Yes, a (pron. as in at, air). Certainly, kágat. Assuredly, ahbedákummig. Let it be, máhnoo, or me-ga-ing. It is so, -suh, (in contradiction to nuh? is it so?) Of course, indeed, gooshah.

Adverbs of Denial.

No, kah, kahween. Not, kah, kahween -se. Thus: He does not wolk, kahween pemoosase. (See nagative form of the verb.) By no means, kahwásuh. Not at all, káh kuhnuhga.

Adverbs of Doubt.

Perhaps, máungeshuh, kóonemah. Probably, kuhnuhbúj. I don't know, ánduhgwan. I don't know where, he or it is, tebe, tebé-ëdoog. I don't know who, ahwágwan, ahwagwánedoog. I don't know what, wáagoodoogwan. I don't know how, nuhmúnjedoog.

Note. - The Ojebway Language is full of these doubtful expressions, and any verb can have doubtful sense thrown over it by the use of the Dubitative form.

Adverbs of Interrogation.

Is it? nuh? Thus Is it a man? Enéne nuh? Does he speak? Kéekedo nuh? Is he hungry? Puhkuhdá nuh? Why? Wágoonan oonje? When? Ahneen uhpée? How? Ahneen ezhe-? Where? Ahnínde? How much? Ahneen mínik? Whence? Ahnínde óonje?

Adverbs used Imperatively.

Come! Umba! Come here, ondáus. Be quick, wawéeb. Stop! Pákah! Don't, kágo.

Adverbs of Quantity.

It is enough, me menik; much, nebewuh, nebenuh; very, keche, ahpeche; more, nuhwuj uhwaushema; more and more, ashkum; little, punge; almost kagah; so much, ewh menik; too much, osaum nebewuh.

Adverbs of Comparison.

Thus, ezhe; too, also, kuhya; as much as, tébishko menik; as, like, tébishko; more, nuhwúj; less, nuhwúj púnge.

Adverbial Expressions.

It is wonderful, or wonderful indeed! Mahmahkáhduhkúmmig. It is horrible, kuhgwáhnesuhgukúmmig. It is nice, pleasant, minwandáhgwukúmmig.

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