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Lesson 10 - Feelings


Ningawaj - I'm cold.
Gigawaj na? - Are you cold?
Gawaji - S/He is cold.
Gawajiwag - They are cold.
Nindayekoz - I'm tired.
Gidayekoz na? - are you tired?
Ayekozi - S/He is tired.
Ayekoziwag - They are tired.
Nindaakoz - I'm sick.
Gidaakoz na? - Are you sick?
Aakozi - S/He is sick.
Aakoziwag - They are sick.
Ningishiz - I'm hot.
Gigishiz na? - Are you hot?
Gishizo - S/he is hot.
Gishizowag - They are hot.
Nimbaabaa ayekozi - My father is tired.
Nishiime gawaji - My younger sibling is cold.
Nisaye gawaji - My older brother is cold.
Mary gawaji - Mary is cold.
Aakozi na Joe? - Is Joe sick?
Nimiseyag aakoziwag - My older sisters are sick.
Aakoziwag ogowe ikwewag - These women are sick.
Akina gawajiwag - They are all cold.
Gaawiin ayekozisii - S/He is not tierd.
Gibaabaa gaawiin ayekozisii - Your father is not tired.
Gaawiin aakozisiiwag - They are not sick.

New Words:

gawaji - he is cold
ayekozi - he is tired
aakozi - he is sick
gishizo - he is hot
nishiime(yag) - my younger sibling
nisaye(yag) - my older brother
nimise(yag) - my older sister
gibaabaa - your father


In English making a statement about actions different persons do, you say:
i go, you go but he goes, changing the verb form when speaking about he or she (adding -s, or -es).

In Ojibwe you also have to change a verb but in a more complicated way. Speaking about different persons (like - i, you, he, we, you all, they) you should change a verb form for each of them.

In Ojibwe it is made by adding certain additions to a verb, called personal prefixes and suffixes, or taken together - affixes (prefix + suffix = affix). Prefixes are added at the beginning of a verb. Suffixes are added at the end of it.

Affixes in Ojibwe differ for each person:

ningawaj - i am cold.
There is only ni- for me; also could be nin-, nind-.

gigawaj - you (singular) are cold.
There is gi- for you singular; also could be gid-.

gawaji - he or she is cold.
There is no prefix for he and she. Remember, Ojibwe verbs are translated as 'he, she does something.'

gawajiwag - they are cold.
There is a suffix -wag for they; also could be -oog.

Rule. If a verb ends in a single -i, or -o, these sounds are dropped when speaking about me and you singl.:
gawaji (he is cold) - ningawaj (i am cold)
aakozi (he is sick) - gidaakoz (you are sick)

To make a negative statement, you need to place gaawiin ("no") before a verb and add a negative suffix -sii to a verb. A negative suffix is placed before a personal suffix (if there is any):

Gibaabaa gaawiin ayekozisii - Your father is not tired.
Gaawiin aakozisiiwag - They are not sick.

Grammar notes.

AI (animate intransitive) verb conjugation:

i, meni-(verb)
you singl. gi-(verb)
we (exc.)ni-(verb)-min
we (inc.)gi-(verb)-min
you pl.gi-(verb)-m

There are two different "we" in Ojibwe. "We", starting with the personal prefix ni-, does not include an addressee, it is "we, but without you". "We", starting with gi-, includes an addressee - "we with you".

If a verb ends in a short vowel /i/ or /o/, this vowel will be dropped in 1 and 2 person singulars.

The personal prefix ni- has several forms:
ni- before w, z, n, m;
nin- before d, g, j
nim- before b
nind- before any vowel

The personal prefix gi- changes into gid- before vowels.

The negative suffix -sii turns into -zii after consonants.


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