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Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng
A Conference to find
a Common Anishinaabemowin Writing System

 


Northwestern dialect. English text is not literal translation,
but English variant of the document. There are differences in texts.


Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng
Gaa-gii-maawaji'iding

Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng
Conference Report


E-gii-maawaji'idiwaad anishinaabeg
e-gii-gagwe-mikamowaad bezhig naasaab
anishinaabebii'igewin.

A Conference to find a Common
Anishinaabemowin Writing System


Pat Ningewance o-gii-ozhibii'aan owe
Submitted by Pat Ningewance

Gichi-miigwech

- miigwech nindinaag Gichi-aya'aag gaye Gikino'amaageg gaye Gikino'amawaaganag gaye gakina igi gaa-gii-biizhaawaad imaa maawaji'idiwining, e-gii-bi-wiiji'iwewaad e-dazhindeg anishinaabebii'igewin.
- to the Elders and the teachers, students, administrators, translators and other guardians of Anishinaabemowin across this land who attended this conference and contributed their good thoughts, support, and guidance,

- miigwech nindinaa ogimaawiwin Ministry of Education and Training (MET) gaa-gii-miigiwewaad zhooniyaan gaa-gii-onji-gashkichigaadeg ji-maawaji'idiying, memindage go awe John Stanley gaa-izhinikaazod.
- to the Ministry of Education and Training (MET) that funded this important conference, especially John Stanley,

- miigwech nindinaag igi Okobiwining gaa-gii-wiijitwaawaad: Pauline Decontie Maniwaki, Quebec gaa-onjiid; Nancy Jones Ft. Frances, Ontario gaa-onjiid; John Nichols Winnipeg, Manitoba gaa-onjiid; Agnes PeeAce Saskatoon, Saskatchewan gaa-onjiid; Eunice Perez Winnipeg, Manitoba gaa-onjiid; gaye Lena White Manidoominising gaa-onjiid noongom dash Roseau, Manitoba.
- to the Steering Committee members Pauline Decontie of Maniwaki, Quebec; Nancy Jones of Ft. Frances, Ontario; John Nichols of Winnipeg, Manitoba; Agnes PeeAce of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Eunice Perez of Winnipeg, Manitoba; and Lena White of Manitoulin Island, Ontario,

- miigwech nindinaag igi gaa-gii-wiiji'iwewaad, gaawiin gii-diba'amawaasiiwag: Lila Duffy Winnipeg gaa-onjiid; Liz Kejick Lac Seul gaa-onjiid; Amos Keye, Angie Monture zhigwa Joan Greenbird Woodland Cultural Centre Brantford, Ontario gaa-onjiiwaad; zhigwa dash Paul Von Wichert Winnipeg gaa-onjiid.
- to the conference volunteers who donated their time: Lila Duffy of Winnipeg; Elizabeth Kejick of Lac Seul; Amos Keye, Angie Monture, and Joan Greenbird, staff members of the Woodland Cultural Centre in Brantford, Ontario; and Paul Von Wichert of Winnipeg.

- Niin Pat Ningewance
- Pat Ningewance

 

ETEGIN GAA-OZHIBII'IGAADEGIN
Table of Contents

Gaa-gagwe-dakobii'igaadeg Wiindamaagewin
Executive Summary

Izhinikaajiganan
Glossary of Linguistic Terminology

Nitam wiindamaagewin
Introduction

Izhichigewin
The Project

Okobiwining Gaa-gii-wiiji'iwewaad
The Steering Committee

Gaa-gii-doodang gaa-gii-niigaaniid
Co-ordinator's Activities

E-gii-ozhiitaang ji-maawaji'iding
Preparation For The Conference

Maawaji'idiwin
The Conference

Gaa-gii-ikidowaad ji-izhichigeng
Report and Recommendations From Each Workshop

Ge-izhi-minoseg, ge-izhi-maanzhiseg izhibii'igewinan
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Orthography System

Aanikewiindamaagewin A - Ezhibii'igeng
Appendix "A": Orthographies by Province and State

Aanikewiindamaagewin B - Maawaji'iding
Appendix "B": Conference Programme

Aanikewiindamaagewin C - Gaa-gii-biizhaawaad
Appendix "C": Delegates

Aanikewiindamaagewin D - Aaniin ezhibii'igeng miziwe
Appendix "D": Orthographies

 

* * *

Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng

Nindibaajim aaniin gaa-doodamowaad anishinaabeg gii-maawaji'idiwaad e-gagwe-mikamowaad naasaab ji-izhi-anishinaabebii'igewaad.
Report of the Conference to Find a Common Writing System for the Anishinaabemowin

 

Gaa-gagwe-dakobii'igaadeg Wiindamaagewin
Executive Summary

Niizhwaak gichi-anishinaabeg, dago anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino'amaagewaad, gaye gaa-aanakanootamaagewaad, gaye anishinaabemowin gaa-anokaadamowaad, gaye igiwe gaa-gagwe-nitaa-anishinaabemowaad gii-maawaji'idiwag gichi-oodenaang Toronto gaa-izhinikaadeg Miini-giizis 8, 9, zhigo biinish 10 gii-inangizod, 1996 gii-izhiseg. O-gii-gagwe-mikaanaawaa naasaab ji-izhi-anishinaabebii'igewaad. Miziwe dash gii-bi-onjiiwag - Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, gaye Gichi-mookomaanakiing - Michigan, Wisconsin zhigwa Minnesota.
Two hundred Anishinaabe teachers, Elders, translators, administrators, language activists, and students met in Toronto from 8 to 10 August, 1996 to find a common Anishinaabemowin orthography. They came from Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

Amii dash gaa-inendamowaad nisogon gaa-izhisenig, iwe gaa-niizhooshinowaad ozhibii'iganensag maawach miziwe e-izhi-aabajichigaadeg apiich wiin iniwe bakaan izhibii'igewinan.
They chose the "Double Vowel" system as the International Anishinaabe orthography because it is the system of writing that the Anishinaabeg use on both sides of the international boundary. They also recognise the value and importance of syllabics as part of their linguistic heritage.

Gaa-gii-biizhaawaad anishinaabeg o-gii-waawaabandaanaawaan iniwe anishinaabebii'igewinan noongom gaa-aabajichigaadegin. Niswewaanaganoon aaniish inendaagwan. Bezhig iwe gaa-niizhoobii'igaazowaad ikidowinag. Miziwe aabajichigaade owe izhibii'igewin, maawach e-baatiinowaad owe gaa-izhibii'igewaad. Bezhig dash miinawaa gaa-jakibii'igaazowaad ikidowinag. Saskatchewan gaye Quebec onjiiwag igi anishinaabeg owe gaa-izhibii'igewaad. Zhigo miinawaa wiinawaa go gaa-ozhibii'amowaad anishinaabeg aaniin igo enitamowaad anishinaabemowin.
The delegates compared the various orthographies that are now used. There were three "systems" used: the Double Vowel system which is used in Ontario (Native Language Instructors' Program), Manitoba (Manitoba Association for Native Languages), Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; the Macron system users were fewer in number, coming from Saskatchewan and Quebec; and Folk Phonetic, not really a system, but the way that many language teachers and fluent speakers still write their language "as it sounds." The third way of writing is not consistent and differs from writer to writer.

The only difference between Double Vowel and Macron is in the long vowels:


Gaa-jakibii'igewaad: e i í o ó a á
Gaa-niizhoobii'igewaad: e i ii o oo a aa

Macron Users: e i í o ó a á
Double Vowel Users: e i ii o oo a aa

Ogowe gaye daa-aabadiziwag ozhibii'iganensag:
Furthermore, the following consonants were agreed upon:


Gaa-niizhoobii'igewaad k/g t/d p/b y h sh/zh s/z ch/j w n m
Gaa-jakibii'igewaad
Quebec: k/g t/d p/b y h sh/j s/z ch/dj w n m
Saskatchewan: k/g t/d p/b y h hš/š hs/s hc/c w n m

Double Vowel k/g t/d p/b y h sh/zh s/z ch/j w n m '
Macron
Quebec: k/g t/d p/b y h sh/j s/z ch/dj w n m h
Saskatchewan: k/g t/d p/b y h hš/š hs/s hc/c w n m h

Gaawiin wiin gii-dazhinjigaadesinoon aaniin ge-izhibii'igaadegin ono ens, oons, dinowa. Gaye gaa-gibitoweng, gaye ono dino jakibii'iganensan, ." " ? : - - ozaam ajina e-gii-maawaji'ding. Gaye gaawiin gii-ozhichigaadesinoonan oshki-ikidowinan.
The Double Vowel system prevailed because of its larger number of users. Due to the time, the delegates did not look at standardising the nasal vowels, glottal stops, use of punctuation, or developing vocabulary (neologisms).

 

Izhinikaajiganan
Glossary of Linguistic Terminology

Ozhibii'igaadewan omaa gaa-zanaginikaadegin ikidowinan gaa-aabajitoowaad ako igiwe gaa-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin. Gii-gikino'amawaawag aaniish wiinawaa aaniin ezhinikaadegin. Igiwe dash wiin gaa-gii-gikino'amwaasiwindwaa, gaawiin gakina ogikendaziinaawaadog onowe gichi-ikidowinan. Amii dash omaa gaa-onji-wiindegin.
Linguistic terminology is defined for the convenience of the Anishinaabemowin language teachers who are self-taught or who have not been formally trained to teach the Anishinaabemowin language. These terms are used throughout this report.

Aaniin ekidoomagakin

common orthography - Gaa-izhibii'iged awiya gaa-anishinaabebii'iged.
common orthography: A spelling system that is agreed upon by all users.

consistency - Bezhigwan, gemaa naasaab.
consistency: Agreement of parts to one another.

consonant - Gaawiin wiin ono dinookaanan ozhibii'iganensan: a, e, i, o, u. Gaa-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin ono odaabajitoonaawaan: b, c, d, g, h, j, k, m, n, p, s, t, w, y, z.
consonant: A sound that is not a vowel. Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa and Algonquin teachers use these consonants: b, c, d, g, h, j, k, m, n, p, s, t, w, y, z.

culture - Izhitwaawin, gemaa izhi-bimaadiziwin.
culture: The language, customs, values, beliefs, art forms, and achievement of a society.

curriculum - Gaa-wii-izhi-gikino'amaageng.
curriculum: The knowledge, information, abilities, activities, materials, and skills which are included in the teaching of any subject.

dialect - Gaa-izhigiizhweng imaa dazhiikewining. Bangii aaniish bebakaan inwewag miziwe anishinaabeg. Zhaagooch idash naasaab iwe izhigiizhwewin, aanawi bangii bebakaan e-inwewaad. Zhaagooch nisidotaadiwag bakaan onjiiwaad anishinaabeg.
dialect: The language spoken at the community level. Although it is similar to the language spoken in the surrounding area, a dialect has its own vocabulary, grammar, intonation, and expressions unique to that community.

dictionary - Gaa-niibidebii'igaadegin ikidowinan, dago gaa-ikidoomagakin.
dictionary: A list of words and their meanings in the same language (unilingual dictionary) or in a contrasting language (bilingual dictionary).

"Double Vowel System" - Gaa-niizhoobii'igaadegin ozhibii'iganensan daabishkoo ono: ii, aa, oo. Anishinaabeg iwe izhibii'igewag, imaa Thunder Bay gaa-gii-izhi-ando-gikino'amawindwaa ji-nitaa-anishinaabebii' igewaad gaye ji-nitaa-gikino' amaagewaad anishinaabemowin. Fiero izhinikaazo awe waabishkiiwe gichi-mookomaan gaa-gii-oshki-maajitood owe dinookaan izhibii'igewin.
"Double Vowel System": The system of writing Ojibwe and Chippewa that doubles the long vowels instead of marking them. It is also called the Fiero system after the Minnesota missionary Charles Fiero who devised it in the late 1950's.

"Fiero System" - Naasaab owe daabishkoo gaa-ishkwaa-dazhinjigaadeg.
Fiero System: See above.

"Folk Phonetic System" - Gaa-izhibii'igewaad igi anishinaabeg gaa-gii-gikino'amawaasi windwaa bezhig dino izhibii'igewin. Wiinawaa go gaa-onwaadamowaad ge-izhibii'igewaad, enitaagwag e'izhibii'igewaad.
Folk Phonetic System: Writing the language "as it sounds" using English (or French) spelling. Some examples: chee-mahn/jeemahn (boat), ekway/equay/eequay (woman).

glossary - Gaa-niibidebii'igaadegin ikidowinan dago gaa-ikidoomagakin.
glossary: A short list of words and their meanings.

glottal stop: Gii-gibitoweng, megwaa gii-giigidong. Owe dash izhibii'igaade iwe '. Daabishkoo: ma'iingan. Ngoding h aabadizi: mahiingan.
glottal stop - A consonant which is made with a momentary stoppage of breath. It is expressed sometimes with an apostrophe or with h. Some examples: ma'iingan/mahiingan (wolf). In some dialects, it is actually pronounced as "h".

grammar - Gaa-izhising giigidowin.
grammar: The recurring patterns of language elements as they occur in forms of words and in arrangements of words in utterances.

language - Izhigiizhwewin. Inwewin.
language: The words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a considerable community.

language family - Bangii gaa-nisidotaadiimagakin izhigiizhwewinan, daabishkoo anishinaabemowin zhigo dash omashkiigoomowin. Bakaan inwemaganoon, zhaagooch dash geyaabi bangii nisidotaadii maganoon bebakaan dash ge-inwemagakin.
language family: A group of related languages. They have some common vocabulary and a similar grammar. Anishinaabemowin and Cree belong to the same language family although they are different languages. The words for river and knife are the same for both languages, for example.

lexicography - Gaa-niibidebii'gaadegin ikidowinan gaye gaa-ikidoomagakin.
lexicography: The editing or making of a dictionary; compiling words and their definitions alphabetically.

lexicon: An alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language and their definitions; a dictionary.

linguistics - Gaa-nanaandawi-gikenjigaadeg izhigiizhwewin, aaniin wenji-inwemagak, gaye awenenag enwewaad, gaye mewinzha gaa-inwemagakin wegonen dash bakaan wenji-ani-inwemagak izhigiizhwewin.
linguistics: The science which systematically analyses and describes a language as used by native speakers. There are several branches of linguistic science, such as historical, comparative, and contrastive.

literacy - E-gashkichigaadeg ji-ozhibii' igeng gaye ji-anamichigeng ji-aginjigeng.
literacy: Being able to read and write. The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training uses as its definition ...Literacy is the ability to read, write, calculate, speak, and understand, as well as sign (for the Deaf) and communicate in other forms of language, according to need. It is a continuum of these skills necessary for everyday life in the home, at work, in education and in the community.

long vowel - Inwewin nawaj ginwesh ezhiseg ji-ikidong, daabishkoo ono: jiimaan / jímán, googii / gógí
long vowel: A vowel that takes longer to utter. Some examples of long vowels: jiimaan/jímán, googii/gógí

"Macron System" - Gaa-jakibii'igaazowaad igi ginwesh gaa-inwewaad ikidowinag, wiiyakwaanensing gaa-izhinaagwag imaa. Daabishkoo owe: ozhîtâ, âmô
"Macron System": The system of writing the language where the long vowels are marked, instead of being "lengthened" by doubling. Example: ozhîtâ, (he/she gets ready), âmô amo (bee)

neologism - Oshki-ikidowin. Gaa-wiindeg oshki-gegoon, gaa-gii-ayaasig mewinzha anishinaabe, noongom dash gaa-wiindang. Daabishkoo odaabaan, gaa-bimisemagag, gaa-dakaag.
neologism: A newly formed word, usually developed in order to describe a new invention or idea. Example: car - odaabaan (that which hauls or is hauled)

orthography - Izhibii'igewin.
orthography: A spelling system.

roman orthography - Ogowe a, b, c, d, e, f, g ... gaa-aabadiziwaad e-anishinaabebii'igeng.
Roman orthography: A writing system with the alphabet used in the Latin language. Any Anishinaabe person writing their language uses the Roman orthography, regardless of the orthography - double vowel, macron, folk phonetic.

short vowel - Gaawiin ginwesh gaa-ikidong inwewin, daabishko owe: amo, ikido, makizin.
short vowel: A short vowel is one that takes less time to say than a "long vowel". Example: amo, but not aamoo.

standardization - Naasaab gemaa bezhigwan ji-izhichigeng.
standardisation: Conforming to an agreed standard.

syllabics (syllabic writing) - Gwaashkwebijiganibii'igewin gaa-izhinikaadeg, gemaa anishinaa bebii'igewin owe e-izhinaagwag:
syllabics (syllabic writing): A writing system where each symbol stands for a consonant-and-vowel or just a vowel or consonant.

Aaniin Ezhibii'igeng:
Examples:

terminology - Gaa-zanagitaagwakin izhinikaajiganan.
terminology: The technical or special terms used in a subject.

voice sound - Gaa-inweng, ono e-ikidong b, g, d, j/dj, zh/j, z.
voiced sound: A sound made with the vocal cords vibrating. Here are some that the Anishinaabeg use: b, g, d, j/dj, zh/j, z.

voiceless sound - Gaa-inweng ono e-ikidong: p, k, t, ch/c, sh/c, s.
voiceless sound: A sound made while the vocal cords are not vibrating. Here are some that Anishinaabemowin uses: p, k, t, ch/č, sh/c, s.

vowel - Ono dinookaanan ozhibii'iganensan: e, i, i, ii, o, o, oo, a, a, aa.
vowel: One of a class of speech sounds in the articulation of which the oral part of the breath channel is not blocked and is not constricted enough to cause audible friction. The Anishinaabemowin speakers use these combinations of letters: e, i, í, ii, o, ó, oo, a, á, aa.

vowel length - Giishpin ginwesh gemaa ajina eta ezhisegwen ji-ikidong ono inwewinan e, ii, oo, aa, i, o, a.
vowel length: The time it takes to utter a vowel. In Anishinaabemowin, there are four long vowels: e, ii, oo, aa and three short: i, o, a.

 

Nitam wiindamaagewin
Introduction

Naasaab gaa-gagwe-izhibii'igaadegin Anishinaabemowinan Izhichigewinan
The Aboriginal Standardisation Project

Amii e-gagwe-doodang Ontario Ministry of Education (MET), ogimaa gikino'amaagewin gaa-naagajitood, e-dazhiikamowaad anishinaabemowinan, naasaab ji-izhi bii'igewaad igi anishinaabeg naasaab gaa-inwewaad, ji-onji-nitaawibii'igewaad e-inendaag wag. Amii iin zan e-doodang MET e-wiiji'aawaad anishinaabe' omaa Ontario naasaab ji-gagwe-izhibii'igenid. Miinaawag dash zhooniyaa anishinaabeg owe gaa-gagwe gojitoo waad, gaye ji-ozhibii'amowaad ge-aabajitoowaad gikino'amaagewaad odizhigiizhwewi niwaan gikino'amaadiiwigamigong, gaa-ishkwaa-mikamowaad naasaab izhibii'igewin. Ji-onji-minjiminamowaad dash odizhigiizhwewiniwaa, ji-gagwe-zhaabwiichigaadegin anishinaabemowinan omaa Ontario gaa-onji-doodamong. Naadoweg wedi waabanong gaa-ayaawaad, Mohawk gaa-izhinikaazowaad iinzan wiin aazha owe o-gii-giizhitoonaawaa. Godag gaye anishinaabemowinan omaa gaa-ayaagin Canada akiing bezhigan iwe gii-izhichigewag noomaye. Omaa waawiindewan.
The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training (MET), through the Literacy and Basic Skills Section, developed a multi-year proposal for Aboriginal language standardisation as part of its mandate for Aboriginal literacy. The Literacy and Basic Skills Section assists Ontario Aboriginals to standardise their languages. The Ministry provides funding to Aboriginal organisations in Ontario to develop standard literary forms and to prepare Native language materials for use in Native adult literacy agencies. The objective is to ensure the revitalisation, survival, and functional use of Ontario's thirteen Native languages. The Anishinaabemowin Conference had some precedents in Aboriginal language standardisation in Canada and in other parts of the world where Aboriginal people dwell. The following projects have been initiated in recent years.

 

Mohaw Naadowemowin Naasaab izhibii'igewin Izhichigewan
Mohawk Language Standardisation Project

1992 jibwaa-izhiseg, gaawiin igiwe Naadoweg Mohawks gaa-inindwaa o-gii-ayaasiinaa waa naasaab izhibii'igewin. Amii eta ge-gii-izhichigeyingiban naasaab ji-izhi bii'igeying ji-gashkitooying ji-ozhitooying ge-onizhishingin mazina'iganan gii-ikidowag iinzan 1995 e-dibaajimowaad gewiinawaa. Gichi-aya'aag eta geyaabi gaa-nitaa-naadowemowaad, gaawiin wiin igi oshkaadiziig. Aazha wiinge owanitoonaawaa odizhigiizhwewiniwaa. Gikino'amaadiiwigamigong eta noongom izhi-gikino'amaagewag Naadowemowin. 1993 gii-maajiseg, MET gaa-anokiitamaagewaad o-gii-maajii-ganoonaawa' ini Naadowe', e-nanaando-gikenjigaadeg ganage naasaab izhibii'igewin ji-andawenjigaadegiban, ganage gaye o-daa-bimiwidoonaawaa owe dino izhichigewin. Igi dash Naadoweg o-gii-ozhitoonaawaa okobiwin, Dorothy Lazoran dash o-gii-anokii'aawaan ji-niigaaniitamonid owe izhichigewin. Gii-maajitaawag. Miinigiizis gii-bimangizod 1993 gii-izhiseg, gii-maawaji'idiwag igi Naadoweg niiwigon imaa Tyendinaga. Amii dash iwe naasaab izhibii'igewin gaa-gii-dazhindamowaad, wegonen mayaa naasaab ge-izhibii'igaadeg. Ishkwaawaach, gii-ayikidowag aaniin enendamowaad ge-izhibii'igeng, gaye ge-izhini-kaadegin oshki-gegoonan. Gaa-niigaaniitang dash ogimaakaana' o-gii-izhinizha'amawaa' odibaajimowin. Da-odaapinigaade dash iwe gaa-gii-inaakonigewaad ji-izhibii-igeng.
Before 1992, Mohawk did not "have a standard writing system... Standardisation of the written form of the language is required to produce quality materials and to avoid fragmentation of a language", says the 1995 report. The Mohawk language is intact only among the Elders. Many younger people have grown up not speaking or hearing Mohawk in their homes. Mohawk is being taught in many schools now. In early 1993, the Ministry staff began meeting with the Mohawk members to determine if they wished to develop a standard literacy form of Mohawk and to establish which organisation would be willing to co-sponsor such a project. The Mohawks formed a Conference Planning Committee and hired Dorothy Lazore as co-ordinator. The communities agreed to standardise their writing system. In August 1993, about fifty Mohawk Elders and teachers met for four days at Tyendinaga. The Conference was funded by three Ontario Ministries, including that of Education and Training. On the last day, the delegates' recommendations were reviewed and finalised. The orthography had been standardised and methods to coin new words were approved. The project co-ordinator's report was sent to each of the six Mohawk Nations band office. The Band Councils will review the report and approve it through Band Council Resolutions, endorsing its recommendations, and requiring the use of the approved standard orthography of Mohawk on its territory.

 

Omashkiigoomowin Naasaab Ji-izhibii'igaadeg
Cree Syllabic Standardisation Conference

Gewiinawaa dash Omashkiigoog imaa James Bay gaa-daawaad gii-maawaji'idiwag February 1996 gii-bimangizod, gewiinawaa naasaab e-wii-gagwe-izhibii'amowaad odizhigiizhwewiniwaa. Naanan dazhiikewining gii-bi-onjiiwag: Fort Severn, Attawapiskat, Kashechewan, Fort Albany zhigwa Moose Factory. Greg Spence izhinikaazo gaa-gii-niigaaniitang owe izhichigewin.
The Crees on the western James Bay coast met on February 1996 to standardise the syllabic writing that they use. They came from Fort Severn, Attawapiskat, Kashechewan, Fort Albany and Moose Factory. Their coordinator was Greg Spence.

 

Waasa Giiwedinong Anishinaabemowin Naasaab Izhibii'igewin
The Dene Language Standardisation Project

1985 gii-izhiseg, gii-ishkwaa-gichi-nanaandawi-gikenjigaadenig ezhisenig odizhigiizh-wewiniwaa igi waasa giiwedinong gaa-ayaawaad anishinaabeg Dene gaa-izhini-kaanidizowaad, gii-ikidowag naasaab ji-gagwe-izhibii'amowaad odizhigiizhwewiniwaa. Naanwewaanagiziwag iinzan wedi gaa-ayaawaad, gegaa gaa-nisidotaadiwaad gii-anishinaabemowaad - Loucheux, Dogrib, Chippwayan, South Slavey zhigwa North Slavey. 1987 dash gii-izhiseg gii-maajitaawag. Ji-gagwe-gichiwinamowaad odizhigii zhwewiniwaa dash owe gaa-gii-onji-izhichigewaad gewiinawaa, bizaanigo nawach niibiwa mazina'iganan ji-onji-ozhitamaazowaad.
In 1985, following a comprehensive language study, a Task Force on Aboriginal Language in the Northwest Territories recommended that the Dene standardise their writing systems. The five Athapaskan or Dene Nations (Loucheux, Dogrib, Chippewayan, South Slavey, and North Slavey) began that process in 1987. This project's mandate was to develop recommendations on standardisation, as well as to establish rules for grammar, spelling, and pronunciation for the five languages. The hoped for result would be the preservation of the Dene languages, assuming there was more widespread Dene language literacy and publication of Native language materials.

Gichi-aya'aag, gaa-gikino'amaagewaad gaye izhigiizhwewin, gaye igiwe gaa-nitaawewaad gii-dagwiiwag imaa okobiwining. Bezhig dash inake izhibii'igewin o-gii-odaapinaanaawaa. Amii dash gaa-ako-izhiseg iwe, nawach niibiwa noongom odoozhitoonaawaan mazina'iganan e-anishinaabebii'igaadegin ge-aabajitoowaad ogikino'amaadiiwigamigowaang, gaye odazhiikewiniwaang.
Dene Elders, language teachers, and fluent speakers formed the Planning Committee. They adopted and standardised the writing system using the Roman alphabet. The direct outcome of this project has been the publication of more Dene language materials for use in their schools and in their communities

 

Waasa wedi Agaamakiing Gaa-ayaawaad Anishinaabeg Maori gaa-izhinikaazowaad
Maori Language Orthography Standardisation

Igi anishinaabeg Maori gaa-izhinikaazowaad, minisensing gichigamiing waasa wedi agaamakiing gaa-onjiiwaad, New Zealand gaa-izhinikaadeg, bezhigwan gewiinawaa gii-izhichigewag. 1958 gii-izhisenig odoogimaamiwaan gii-izhichigewan bezhigwan ji-gagwe-izhibii'igewaad. Noongom dash gakina ogashkitoonaawaa ji-anamitoowaad ozhibii'iganini aaniindi go gii-onjiimagak iwe anishinaabebii'igan imaa odakiimiwaang.
Not only in this part of the world are Native people striving to revive or maintain their languages by standardising their writing systems. The Maoris in New Zealand standardised the writing of their language in 1958 when the New Zealand government decided that all Maori publications should be written in a standard orthography. Written Maori can now be understood by any tribe regardless of dialect or region.

 

Giinawind Dash Gidizhigiizhwewininaan Naasaab ji-izhibii'igaadeg Izhichigewin
The Anishinaabemowin Project

Gaawiin wiin naasaab ji-inweying anishinaabemowing dazhinjigaadesinoon. Baatiinwewaana giziwag aaniish anishinaabeg gakina bangii bebakaan gaa-onji-inweying. Gaawiin wiin gagwe-aanjichigaadesinoon gidinwewininaan. Ozhibii'igewin eta gaa-dazhinjigaadeg. Ozaam aaniish noojigo bebakaan gidizhibii'igemin.
This project is not about standardising the Anishinaabe language. At this conference, it was obvious that there are as many Anishinaabemowin dialects as there are Anishinaabemowin communities. We were not trying to change the language of each community. Each community has the right to speak its own language or dialect.
There are many reasons for the Anishinaabe people, from across the land, to use one standard spelling for the Anishinaabe language.

1. Gizhaatabi-angwiimagan gidizhigiizhwewininaan. Gaawiin gi-gikino'amawaasiwaanaanig gi-niijaanisinaanig endaawaad, daabishkoo giinawind gaa-gii-onji-nitaa-anishinaabemowing gii-abinoonjiiwiying. Ozaam niibiwa gegoon gi-gibishkaagomin aana-gii-gagwe-gikino'amawangwaa giniijaanisinaanig gaa-izhi daaying -gaa-mazinaateseg gaye bizinjiganan gaa-michi-zhaaganaashiimoomagakin, gaye mazina'iganan gaa-zhaaganaashiibii'igaadegin eta, gaye gii-michi-zhaaganaashiimonotaadiwaad oniigi'igomaag gegaa daso-daawining, gaye dash gii-gwenawi-izhinikaadamang gakina oshki-gegoonan noongom gaa-ayaagin omaa gi-bimaadiziwininaang. Amii dash gaa-onji-gikino'amawindwaa gi-niijaanisinaanig odizhigiizhwewiniwaa gikino'amaadiiwigamigong nindawaa. Ozhibii'igaade dash anishinaabemowin gikino'amaadiiwigamigong gii-dazhi-gikino'amaageng. Bebakaan aaniish izhi-gikino'amawaawag igi gaa-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin ji-izhibii'amowaad. Ningoding gaawiin gii-gikino'amawaasii awe gaa-gikino'amaaged, wiin dash noojigo izhi-gagwe-anishinaabebii'ige. Gaawiin dash gwayag izhi-gikino'amawaasii awe abinoonjii ji-nisidawinang anishinaabemowin ozhibii'igaadenig. Gaawiin aaniish bezhigwan izhibii'igesii awe gaa-gikino'amaaged. Ningoding bakaan odizhibii'an ikidowin gaa-gii-ozhibii'ang. Aaniin dash ge-onji-nisidawinang abinoonjii ozhibii'igan giishpin bakaan bizhishig izhibii'igaadenig gaa-gagwe-nisidawinang. Amii gaye ezhisewaad, anishinaabeg nasine e-babaamigoziwaad, oodenaang gii-izh-igoziwaad ishkoniganing onji, ningoding gaye e-aa'aazhawi-goziwaad oodenaang. Daa-onji-minose dash abinoonjii giishpin naasaab izhibii'igaadenig anishinaabebii'igan aaniindi go izhi-gozid, ji-nisidawinang odinwewin.
1. Our language is rapidly disappearing. We are unable to teach our languages at home in the same way that we fluent speakers learned it. We allow too many obstacles to block the teaching of our language in the home ュ English-language television and radio, English-language books, parents' preference to speak English with each other and to their children, lack of Native terminology for modern items and concepts, and perhaps, living in an English-speaking environment (urban or rural). The children must then learn their language at school. The language is written when it is taught at school. At schools, when students learn their language, their teachers use different orthographies or ways of writing the Anishinaabe language. Sometimes a teacher who has not been trained in a writing system will spell a word several different ways in a single lesson. This practice is confusing to a student. Imagine learning to spell in English and the word "school" was spelled in different ways in the same book. This example is actually what happens in many instances. As well, our people still migrate from territory to territory. Anishinaabe families move from rural to urban areas, or from town to town. It would be helpful for them to have their language spelled the same everywhere they go.

2. Nawach daa-wendan gikino'amaageying gidizhigiizhwewininaan giishpin naasaab izhi-bii'igeying. O-daa-gagwe-gikendaanaawaa aaniin gwayag ge-izhi-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin gikino'amaadiiwigamigong gaa-gikino'amaagewaad. O-daa-gikendaanaawaa eniizhwaachiwaad inwewinensag, gaye godag dinowa inwewinan. O-daa-gikendaanaawaa dash aaniin mayaa ge-izhibii'igewaad gwayag ji-gikino'amaagewaad gaa-izhising anishinaabemowin. Gikenjigaadeg enwemagag anishinaabemowin, amii ge-izhi-gikenjigaadeg aaniin ge-ikidong. Nisidawinang ozhibii'igan abinoonjii, o-daa-gash kitoon biinish ji-gikino'amaazod bikish ji-ani-nisidawinang anishinaabemowin bakaan.
2. Using a common writing system will make our language easier to learn. Language teachers must learn how to teach their language in the classroom setting. They must learn that Anishinaabemowin consists of seven distinct vowels and a certain number of voiced/voiceless consonants, and that it has a grammar. They learn to spell the long vowels differently from short vowels, and voiced consonants from voiceless consonants. Then they can properly teach Anishinaabe grammar to students. When the students learn the grammatical rules, they can grasp the "feel" of the language and will be able to formulate their own sentences sooner. It is necessary to "dissect" our language in order to understand its structure. Only then can it be taught and re-introduced to English-speaking Anishinaabe children and adults in classrooms or by correspondence.

3. Nawach daa-ani-gichi-inenjigaade gidizhigiizhwewininaan giishpin naasaab izhibii'igeying. Giishpin waabandamang gidizhigiizhwewininaan miziwe ozhibii'igaadeg, naasaab gemaa bezhigwan izhibii'igaadeg, da-ani-gichi-inenjigaade, daabishkoo godag inwewinan gaa-ozhibii'igaadegin mazina'iganing miziwe akiing.
3. We will raise the stature of our language if we use a common spelling system. Our language will be made more credible and "official" to the Anishinaabeg when written consistently everywhere it is spoken. It will no longer be primarily oral. Languages with a long history of literacy are sometimes seen as being "better" than those without.

4. Giishpin gwayag izhibii'amang gidizhigiizhwewininaan, gi-daa-gashkitoomin wegonen igo ikidowin ji-ozhibii'amang. Gaawiin wiin eta ini ikidowinan gaa-gikendamang, ini goda gaye wiikaa gaa-gii-noondaziwang, gaye oshki-ikidowinan. Baataa gaa-gikendaman ji-ozhibii'aman mayagi-ikidowin, amii ge'izhi-gashkitooyin mayaa naasaab ji-ikidoyin gaa-inwemagag iwe ikidowin. Daabishkoo biindwewesichigan gii-aabajichigaadeg izhise. Bizaanigo dash gi-daa-ozhibii'aamin gaa-ikidowaad bakaan gaa-inwewaad, bizaanigo dash gi-daa-ikidomin mayaa gaa-inwewaad agindamang gidoozhibii'iganinaan.
4. When we learn to write our language accurately, we can learn new words ancient words or newly-coined words. It is like using a tape recorder. You can spell a new word and be sure to pronounce it properly. In this way we can learn words used by speakers of other Anishinaabe dialects. We will be able to enrich our own language if we were to expand our vocabulary. At least, we would learn to appreciate more fully our language.

5. Giishpin naasaab izhibii'igeying, nawach niibiwa mazina'iganan gaa-anishinaabebii'igaadegin gi-daa-ozhitoomin. Aaniish nawach waasa daa-izhinizha'igaadewan giishpin gakina gaa-anishinaabemoying naasaab izhibii'igeying gi-daa-gashkitoomin ji-nisidawinamang ozhibii'igan bakaan gaa-onjiimagak, aanawi bangii bakaan inwemagak, zhaagooch gi-daa-nisidawi naamin. Aaniin igo dinowa mazina'iganan, gaa-dibaajimoomagakin, gaye ge-aabajichi-gaadegibaniin gikino'amaadiiwigamigong ji-gikino'amawindwaa abinoonjiiyag ji-nitaa-anishinaabemowaad. Nawach niibiwa gi-daa-gashkitoomin ji-ozhitooying, aaniish nawach daa-wendagindewan endaso-mazina'iganan niibiwaan ozhichigaadegin. Wiinge nawach wendagindewan mazina'iiginan, niibiwa adaaweng.
5. If we were to use a common spelling system, we could publish more Anishinaabe language story books, dictionaries, grammar books, workbooks, and other language materials and distribute them more widely. We could send them outside our own territories because teachers of other dialects could still read our materials. For instance, Alberta's Anishinaabemowin books can be used in Minnesota even though they are of different dialects. The Anishinaabe language is still basically the same. This unity can be emphasised by using one common spelling system everywhere. Teachers will also have access to a wider range of language books. They will not have to spend as much time developing teaching materials.

6. Giishpin nawach niibiwa mazina'iganan gashkitooying ji-ozhitooying, nawach bangii daa-inangidewan ji-ozhichigaadegin. Nawach dash niibiwa zhooniyaa daa-aabadizi ji-minobii'igaadegin, ji-aakobii'igaadegin, gaye ji-mashkawegak gaa-nitamiigising mazina'iganing, daabishkoo sago gaa-izhichigaadegin zhaaganaashii-mazina'iganan. Wiinge daa-onizhishin anishinaabensag ji-waabandamowaapan izhinaagwaninigin omazina'iganiwaan, ji-gichi-inendamowaapan. Daa-onji-ondiziwag gaye giidanishinaabeminaanig gaa-nitaa-mamazinibii'igewaad, gaa-nitaawibii'igewaad, gaye gaa-aanakanootamaagewaad.
6. If Anishinaabe language books were written and published in greater numbers, it would lower the cost of each book. More money could then be spent on artwork, colour, and hard-cover books so these books can rival any English or French language books on the market. Children need to see their language contained in beautiful, well-made books, creating more work for Anishinaabe artists, writers, and translators.

7. Giishpin naasaab izhibii'igeying, nawach da-wii-nitaawibii'igewag giidanishinaabeminaanig. Gii-wendag ji-anamichigaadeg ji-aginjigaadeg mazina'igan, bizaanigo awiya o-daa-gashitoon ji-anamitood ji-agindang mazina'igan, bizaanigo awiya o-daa-gashkitoon ji-ozhibii'ang dibaajimowinan ge-onji-ozhichigaadegibaniin ge-waabanjigaadegibaniin imaa gaa-mazinaateseg. Nawach da-minotaagwanoon gidibaajimowininaana zhemaag anishinaabebii'igaadegin, apiich wiin nitam zhaaganaashiibii'igaadegin ani-aanakanootamaagebii'igaadegin dash.
7. When we use a common writing system, it will help fluent Anishinaabeg to become literate in their language. Once a person can read the Anishinaabe language easily, then an individual can read it fluently like one can read English out loud at a natural pace. Then we can write original scripts in our languages and produce good quality radios, videos, and plays. The old method is to write scripts in English and then to translate them. This method results in a limited and colourless version of our language.

Amii owe ge-gii-onji-gagwe-aabajitooyingiban bezhig eta anishinaabebii'igewin gakina gaa-anishinaabemowaad ji-aabajitoowaad.
These reasons demonstrate why it will be beneficial to use one common spelling system for the Anishinaabe language.

 

Izhichigewin
The Project

Ontarioong gikino'amaagewin gaa-anokaadeg, MET gaa-izhinikaadeg gii-onji-maajise owe izhichigewin. Amii e-izhi-gagwe-ganawendamowaad anishinaabemowinan omaa Ontario. Amii dash imaa gaa-onjiid zhooniyaa gaa-gii-aabadizid.
This project began as part of the Ministry of Education and Training's (MET) Aboriginal Language Standardisation (ALS) Project. The Project's objectives are to ensure the revitalisation of Ontario's Aboriginal languages and to respond to the needs of Aboriginal peoples in Ontario while ensuring the survival and functional use of their language. MET funded the thirteen Aboriginal language communities in Ontario to standardise and codify their languages.

Obizhigokaang izhinikaade ishkonigan gaa-onjiid gaa-gii-anokiitang owe izhichigewin. Pat Ningewance izhinikaazo gaa-gii-ozhibii'ang gagwedwe-mazina'igan. Miziwe dash o-gii-izhinizha'aan iweni mazina'igan godag ishkoniganan gaa-izhi-ayaagin omaa Ontario, e-gii-bagosendang ishkoniganing ji-bimiwijigaadeg owe izhichigewin. Gaawiin dash awiya bakaan gii-nakwetanzii, amii eta win odishkonigan, Obizhigokaang gaa-izhini kaadeg. February 13, 1995 gii-izhiseg gii-nakobii'igaade mazina'igan. Amii dash gii-maad anokiid Pat. Nitaa-anishinaabemo, nitaa-anishinaabebii'ige gaye, niizhoobii'igaadenig e-aabajichitood. Gii-bi-gikino'amaage anishinaabemowin, gaye gaa-mazinaatesenig e-gii-dananokiid. Anishinaabemowin igo o-bi-anokiitan bizhishig. Amii dash owe gaa-inanokii'ind:
Lac Seul First Nation member Pat Ningewance wrote a proposal to hold an orthography standardisation conference which she sent to every Anishinaabe Nation in Ontario. She asked for a co-sponsor. Only Lac Seul offered to co-sponsor the Anishinaabemowin project with MET. No other First Nation responded. The agreement was signed on 13 February 1995. Pat began as the project co-ordinator. She is fluent, uses the Double Vowel system, and has experience in language teaching, media, and co-ordinating language projects. Her responsibilities were:

- ji-maawaji'aad ge-dagwiinid okobiwining ge-maamiinomigod anokiid, miziwe ji-onjiinid ini anishinaabe'.
- to form a steering committee made up of language specialists from the regions;

- ji-ozhitood gagwedwe-mazina'igan ge-aabadag maawajitood gikendaasowin.
- to develop a questionnaire that would be used as a consulting tool;

- ji-onwaadang aaniin ge-doodamong niso-giizhig maawaji'iding
- to organise the three-day conference;

- ji-wiindamawaad anishinaabe' gaa-gitaadizinid, gaye igi gaa-gikino'amaagenid anishnaabemowin, gaye gaa-gagwe-anishinaabemonid.
- to contact Ojibwe, Chippewa, Algonquin, and Saulteaux Elders, students, and language teachers,

- to publicise the conference;

- ji-wiindamaaged gaa-wii-inakamiganinig.
- to hire help as required; and ュ

- ji-anokii'iwed.

- ji-maawaji'iwed wedi gichi-oodenaang Toronto gaa-izhinikaadenig.

- ji-dibaajimod aaniin gaa-izhisenig iwe maawaji'idiwin, minji-niizh anishinaabemowin gaye zhaaganaashiimowin ji-aabadag.
- to write and translate the final report after the conference.

 

Okobiwining Gaa-gii-wiiji'iwewaad
The Steering Committee

Gii-ganoonaawag anishinaabeg miziwe gaa-onjiiwaad ji-wiiji'iwewaad apii owe gii-maajichigaadeg. Waasa ningaabii'anong dago gaye zhaawanong Gichi-mookomaanakiing gaye waabanong gii-izhi-gagwedwe. O-gii-andomaa' idash ji-biizhaanid.
To form the Project Steering Committee, the Co-ordinator contacted Anishinaabemowin teachers and program administrators (and one linguist) from as far east as Quebec and as far west as Saskatchewan and invited them to the first meeting.

Amii dash owe gaa-inwaazowaad:
Terms of Reference for the Steering Committee were:

-ュ ji-maamiinomaawaad ini gaa-niigaaniitamonid.
- to guide the coordinator;

- ji-waawiindamawaawaad ini aaniin enendamong anishinaabemowin onji.
- to inform the coordinator of language issures in their area;

-ュ ji-ikidowaad aaniin ge-doodamong.
- to make decisions; and

- ji-ozhi'ind geyaabi zhooniyaa ge-aabadizid.
- to raise funding.

 

Amii ogowe gaa-dagwiiwaad:
The Steering Committee Members:

Pauline Decontie, Algonquin dino wa'a anishinaabekwe. Gitigaani-ziibi izhinikaadeni gaa-onjiid. Wemitigoozhiiwakiing ayaa. Anishinaabemowin o-bi-anokaadaan gewiin. Jakibii'ige gii-anishinaabebii'iged.
Pauline Decontie, Algonquin language specialist, Kitigan-Zibi. She was born and raised in Maniwaki, Quebec. She is familiar with the history of the Algonquin language and culture. She uses the Macron system for writing.

Agnes PeeAce, Saulteaux dinowi wa'a anishinaabekwe. Bagaani-zaaga'iganiing izhinikaadeni wedi Saskaachiwan gaa-onjiid. Anishinaabemowin gewiin bizhishig o-bi-anokaadaan. Jakibii'igewin odaabajitoon.
Agnes PeeAce, Saulteaux Language Curriculum Developer / Researcher, Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre, Saskatoon. She has also been a Saulteaux language teacher at Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon campus. She was born and raised in Yellow Quill Reserve, Saskatchewan. She uses the Macron system.

Lena Odjig White, Ojibwe / Odawa dinowi awe anishinaabekwe. Wiikwemikwaang imaa Manidoominising onjii. Anishinaabemowin gewiin bizhishig o-bi-anokaadaan. Noongom dash imaa Manitoba izhidaa. Niizhoobii'igewin odaabajitoon.
Lena Odjig White, Nishnaabemwin language teacher. She was born and raised in Wikwemikong, Manitoulin Island, Ontario and is a former Director of the Native Language Instructors Program at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario. She now lives in Roseau Reserve, Manitoba. She uses the Double Vowel System for writing.

Nancy Jones, Ojibwe dinowi awe anishinaabekwe. Nigigoonsiminikaaning izhinikaadeni gaa-onjiid. Imaa dash noongom Fort Frances, Ontario dananokii. Apane go gewiin anishinaabemowin gaa-anokiitang. Niizhoobii'ige gii-anishinaabebii'iged.
Nancy Jones, Ojibwe Elder and language teacher in Fort Frances, Ontario. She was born and raised in Nigickousemenekaning, Ontario. She uses the Double Vowel System.

Eunice Perez, Saulteaux Ojibwe dinowi awe anishinaabekwe. Imaa Gaa-wiikwedaawangaag onjii. Nitaa-anishinaabemo. Imaa dash Manitoba Association for Native Languages (MANL), gaa-dizhi-anokaadeg anishinaabemowin o-gii-niigaaniitaan iwe apii. Ningoding dash owiidanokiimaaganan o-gii-naabishkaagoon, Carol Beaulieu izhinikaazowan.
Eunice Perez, Fluent Anishinaabemowin speaker and Executive Director of the Manitoba Association for Native Languages (MANL), Winnipeg. She was born and raised in Sandy Bay, Manitoba. MANL promotes the use of the Double Vowel system throughout Manitoba. Eunice was sometimes accompanied or replaced by MANL staff member Carol Beaulieu.

Dr. John Nichols izhinikaazo awe zhaaganaash gaa-gii-wiiji'iwed. Amii enanokiid anishinaabemowin e-nagajitood. Minnesota zhigwa Ontario zhigwa Manitoba bi-dananokii. Noongom dash imaa gichi-gikendaasoowigamigong, University of Manitoba dazhi-gikino'amaage. Niizhoobii'igewin odaabajitoon.
Dr. John Nichols, a linguist who has worked with Anishinaabemowin for many years in Minnesota, Ontario, and Manitoba, and teaches at the University of Manitoba. He uses the Double Vowel System, the Macron system, and syllabics.

Dolores Wakefield, Ojibwe awe dino anishinaabekwe. Gichi-gikendaasoowigamigong University of Minneapolis gii-dazhi-gikino'amaage owe apii. Aabiding eta gii-biizhaaban gii-maawaji'iding.
Dolores Wakefield, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Ojibwe Elder and Language Instructor at the University of Minneapolis, at the time. She now is retired from teaching. She uses the folk phonetic system.

 

Nitam Gii-okobiiwaad
The First Steering Committee Meeting

Animikii-wiikwedong nitam gii-dazhi-okobiwag ogo Aditemini-giizis 22 gii-inaginzod. Ogo gii-biizhaawag:
The steering committee met first at the Avila Centre, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, on 22 July 1995. Present were:

Carol Beaulieu, Manitoba (for Eunice Perez) ュ
Pauline Decontie, Quebec ュ
Nancy Jones, Northern Ontario ュ
John Nichols, Linguist ュ
Pat Ningewance, Co-ordinator ュ
Agnes PeeAce, Saskatchewan ュ
Dolores Wakefield, Minnesota ュ
Lena White, Southern Ontario

Ogo gaawiin gii-biizhaasiiwag:
Regrets:

John Stanley, MET, Toronto
Doug Anderson, MET, Toronto ュ
Eunice Perez, MANL, Manitoba

O-gii-waawaabandaanaawaa iwe mazina'igan gaa-waawiindeg aaniin ge-izhichigeng. O-gii-aanikebii'aanaawaa gewiinawaa gaa-izhi-gikendamowaad. Amii dash gaa-ikidowaad imaa gichi-oodenaang Toronto ji-maawaji'iding Miinigiiziz 8 biinish 10 inaginzod 1996 izhiseg. Naasaab izhibii'igewin eta ji-gagwe-mikigaadeg, gaawiin win bakaan gegoon ji-gagwe-debinigaadeg.
At the first meeting, the Committee Members reviewed the project proposal. They added information pertinent to their geographical areas. They agreed to hold the three-day conference in Toronto from 8 to 10 August 1996. The sole objective of the Toronto conference would be to choose one common writing system for writing the Anishinaabemowin language. The committee decided that "a common writing system for Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa, and Algonquin" would be the term that would be used from now on instead of standardisation of Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa, and Algonquin orthography". The term "standardisation" has negative connotations, such as Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa, and Algonquin peoples having to change their language. They also decided, by consensus, that the Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa and Algonquin term would be "Naasaab izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng" ("writing Anishinaabemowin the same way") to describe the conference goal. It was anticipated that there would be no time to make decisions on any other topics, just the orthography issue.

Amii dash gaa-izhi-dazhindamowaad wegonen wenji-andawendaagwag naasaab gakina ji-gii-gagwe-izhibii'igeyingiban. Ozaam ogwenawi-aabajitoonaawaa gaa-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin. Nawach niibiwa mazina'iganan gi-daa-gashkitoomin ji-ozhitooying giishpin naasaab izhibii'igeying. Gakina owe gii-dazhinjigaade. Bezhigwan ningwana izhisewag gikino'amaageg miziwe.
The Steering Committee members all spoke on the need to have a common writing system ュ across the land, across boundaries ュ so that teaching materials and books could be shared. If a common writing system were chosen, publishers could print higher quality books. Many teachers also feel isolated when having to develop their own materials. After this conference it was hoped they would feel part of a larger language teaching community. Books, short novels, song books, grammar reference books, and video/radio drama/play scripts can be mass-produced. The language of students will be enriched by reading books written in other dialects but in the same orthography; it could expose them to other Anishinaabemowin dialects. The new official orthography will "legitimise" the language and raise its prestige in the eyes of students. An official, permanent, widely-used orthography may stimulate more creative writing in Anishinaabemowin when writers know that their work will have wider readership.

"Aazha owe nin-gii-izhichigemin wedi gaa-onjiiyaan," gii-ikido bezhig ikwe Pauline Decontie, wedi Quebec gaa-onjiid. "Abinoonjiiyag nin-gii-gagwejimaanaanig wegonen ozhibii'igan maawach wiinawaa ge-nisidawinamowaapan. Amii dash iwe gaa-aabajitooyaang."
Mrs. Decontie described a similar orthography development process in Quebec. Children learning Algonquin were asked to choose the orthography that they could best use. That orthography was adopted for the Algonquin dictionary.

Imaa dash wiin Sioux Lookout gaa-onjiiwaad anishinaabeg, gwaashkwebijiganibii'igan izhikaadeni gaa-aabajitoowaad anishinaabebii'igan. Bikaanjigam izhinikaade bezhig ishkonigan wiinawaa omazina'iganiwaan e-ozhitoowaad iwe dino ozhibii'igan e-aabajitoowaad. Ningodwaachinoon dazhiikewinan iwe e-izhibii'igewaad.
As for syllabic writing, the six Ojibwe communities in the Sioux Lookout District use only syllabics in their schools. The school in Pikangikum publishes its own reading books and teaching materials in syllabics. Syllabics would be the only option for this community.

Da-andomaawag gikino'amawaaganag gewiinawaa ji-biizhaawaad maawaji'iding. Gaawiin memwaach ji-nitaa-anishinaabemowaad.
It was decided that students would be delegates at this conference. They did not have to be fluent speakers.

 

Miinawaa Gii-okobiwaad.
Second Steering Committee Meeting

Wiinibiigong gii-biizhaawag May 25 gii-inaginzod.
It was held on 25 May at the Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre in Winnipeg.

Ogowe imaa gii-ayaawag:
Present were:

- Carol Beaulieu, Manitoba
- Pauline Decontie, Quebec
- Nancy Jones, Northern Ontario
- John Nichols, Linguist
- Patricia Ningewance, Co-ordinator
- Agnes PeeAce, Saskatchewan
- Eunice Perez, Manitoba
- John Stanley, MET
- Lena White, Southern Ontario

Gii-bi-bizindamoog:
Observers:

- Roger Roulette,
- Brian Cochrane

Gii-wiindamaage gaa-niigaaniitang aaniin eko-anokiitang oweni. Gii-dibaajimo aaniin iinzan ekidonid gichi-aya'aa' gaa-gaganoonaad, gaye igi gaa-gikino'amaagewaad anishinaabemowin, gii-mooshkinebii'amowaad ini mooshkinebii'iganan, gaye gii-gaagiigi dowaad. Amii iinzan ekidowaad gichi-anishinaabeg "Gaawiin nin-gii-ozhibii'anziimin anishinaabemowin mewinzha, zhaagooch nin-gii-nitaa-anishinaabemomin." Awiya gaye gii-ikido ji-dazhinjigaadeg gete-mazinaabikiniganan gete-anishinaabebaniig gaa-gii-mazinibii'amowaad aasamaabik mewinzha. Wegonen imaa ge-onji-gikendamangiban. Gi-daa-gikino'amawaanaanig giidanishinaabeminaanig aaniin endaswewaanagakin ozhibii'igewinan, aaniin gaye endaswewaanagakin inwewinan.
The committee met to discuss the progress of the co-ordinator's activities thus far. The co-ordinator commented on the remarks made by Elders and language teachers from the questionnaires distributed and from conversations. People are concerned about having to write the language. "We didn't have to write the language before and we were fine." There was a suggestion from the group that pictographs be introduced or spoken about in the conference. Pictographs were the original writing system that the Anishinaabe used in prehistoric times. What role could they fill now and what can we learn from them today? In short, a writing system has always existed. We need to create the awareness of the different writing systems. We must use common words at the conference, the Anishinaabe vocabulary understood by the Anishinaabe people across the land, so that there is little misunderstanding or confusion. Dialects do exist.

Aaniin mayaa ge-izhiseg owe maawaji'idiwin gii-dazhinjigaade. Gichi-mookomaanakiing aaniish gaye da-onjiiwag ge-biizhaawaad, gaawiin wiin eta Canada onji. Aaniin dash ge-doodamong ji-gagwe-odaapinamowaad bezhig izhibii'igewin. Amii dash iinzan gaa-doodang awe gaa-niigaaniitang naanwayag e-gii-onwaadang ge-onjiinid awiya.
The conference schedule was discussed. The conference objective is to bring together users of the different orthographies from the United States and Canada and have them choose one system by consensus. To begin, the co-ordinator had divided the Anishinaabe territory into five areas:

1) ningaabii'anong - Alberta zhigwa Saskatchewan;
2) giiwedinong Ontario zhigwa Quebec,
3) Gichi-mookomaanakiing North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin zhigwa Michigan;
4) zhaawanong Ontario memindage Manidoominishing
5) Manitoba.

1) the west which includes Alberta and Saskatchewan;
2) northwestern Ontario and Quebec;
3) the United States (North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan);
4) southern Ontario including Manitoulin Island; and
5) Manitoba.

Niizhwaak maamaw ando-maawag anishinaabeg.

Niimidana dash da-onjiiwag imaa gaa-ishkwaa-wiindeg. Amii dash eta ge-izhi-minoseg. Ozaam wiin awenen igo biizhaad, ozaam niibiwa imaa zhaa wanong Ontario da-bi-onjiiwag, aaniish beshowan imaa. Nawach da-ginigawiinowag owe doodamang, gii-inendam gaa-ozhitood. Aaniin igo gaa-izhibii段gewaad gewiinawaa da-andomaawag. Gewiinawaa da-ikidowag enendamowaad. Gaawiin gaye "voting" da-izhichigesiiwag anishinaabeg. Da-maamawi-odaapinigewag. Imaa dash ge-danakamigag midaaswi bakechiganan da-ayaawan. Niishtana da-dashiwag imaa ge-biindigewaad. Da-midaachiwag igiwe ge-niigaanishkamowaad ini, "Facilitators" gaa-ishinikaazowaad.
Ideally, the delegates should come from the five areas in equal numbers. For instance, we would want the same number of macron-using Francophone Algonquins as the double-vowel users from southern Ontario. Since two hundred would be the desired number of conference delegates, about forty delegates should come from each area. Ten facilitators would take approximately twenty delegates for each workshop, that is, four people from each area. Because the conference would be taking place in Toronto, there would be more double-vowel users from southern Ontario attending. As many delegates from the west as possible should be encouraged to attend. As well, those teachers from everywhere that use the folk phonetic spelling would be encouraged to attend too. This conference would not be just for the double-vowel or macron users. The committee discussed how the delegates would be chosen, what delegates would be asked to speak. The delegates would choose by consensus and not by voting. If voting were done, there would be losers.

Awenenag dash mayaa ge-andomindwaa? Gii-dazhinjigaade owe. Ningaabii誕nong gaye wedi waasa waabanong gaa-onjiiwaad da-andomaawag. Gaa-gagwe-nitaa-anishinaabe-mowaad gikino誕mawaaganag da-andomaawag. Gaawiin dash wiin zhaaganaashiinsag, gaye wemitigoozhiinsag. Gaye anishinaabeg gaa-nitaawibii段gwewaad. Gaawiin gaye da-ayaasinoon aanakanootamaagewin, ji-inanokiiwaad iwe imaa ge-dazhi-maawaji段ding. Deminik niizhwayag inwewag igiwe ge-wiiji段wewaad.
It will be called an Anishinaabe conference and Anishinaabemowin would be used constantly by the staff and facilitators. There would be no simultaneous translation as it was too costly and the facilitators were already bilingual. The workshops would be conducted in Anishinaabemowin as much as possible. The delegates would be chosen on the basis of their (1) location, (2) knowledge of Anishinaabemowin, (3) being Aboriginal [white students could not be delegates] and (4) literacy in Anishinaabemowin, whenever possible. The conference schedule would be as follows:

 

Ge-wiiji段wewaad Maawaji段ding
Facilitators

Niizhogon da-gaagiigidowag ogowe ge-wiiji段wewaad jibwaa-maajiseg maawaji段diwin ji-zhaabo-gikendamowaad aaniin mayaa ge-doodamowaad. O-da-ganawaabandaanaawaan anishinaabebii段ganan gaa-aabadakin noongom miziwe.
The facilitators would meet for two days before the conference in order to become informed on all the literacy issues, various orthographies, and terminology.

Maajiseg Maawaji段diwin Gizhebaawagag, nitam da-anamikkodaadiwag. Da-gaagiigido gaye gaa-niigaaniitang ji-waawiindang wegonen imaa wenji-ayaaying. Ishkwaa-naawakweg dash gakina da-izhaawag gaa-izhi-onwaazowaad ge-izhaawaad, gaa-wiiji段wenid ji-wiijiiwaawaad.
Day One - In the morning plenary session, there would be introductions and greetings from all the areas. The chairperson would address the linguistic issues that led to having an orthography standardisation conference. Delegates would be asked to focus on the topic of orthography. Many language conferences have occurred in Canada and USA to discuss language loss. Now we must look at orthographies that are used and choose one that we can all use. The consensus procedure to be followed will be outlined. The groups will break up and move into their rooms to begin the discussions on orthography use.

Ani-Waabang Miinawaa gabe-giizhig da-dananokiiwag bakeya段i. O-da-gagwe-odaapinaanaawaa dash bezhig ozhibii段gan owe apii.
Day Two - The groups would continue to meet in their groups of twenty to thirty delegates. By the end of this day, they should have gone through the exercises and discussions, and have been able to choose one orthography by consensus.

Ishkwaach Giizhigag Da-maamowiinowag miinawaa, amii dash ge-izhi-dibaajimowaad wegonen wiinawaa gaa-dazhindamowaad, aaniin enendamowaad dino izhibii段gewin ge-odaapinamowaad.
Day Three - The delegates would meet in the plenary room on this last day and present their group痴 recommendations. In the end, one orthography should be chosen for use.

 

Miinawaa Okobiwin
Third Steering Committee Meeting

Wazhaskonigamiing gii-maawaji段diwag ogo gaa-okobiwaad July 2 gii-inaginzonid.
The next Steering Committee meeting was held in Kenora, Ontario, on July 20, 1996.

Ogo omaa gii-ayaawag:
Present were:

Carol Beaulieu, Manitoba
Pauline Decontie, Quebec
Nancy Jones, Northern Ontario
Pat Ningewance, Co-ordinator
Agnes PeeAce, Saskatchewan
Eunice Perez, Manitoba
Tracey Robinson, Asst. Co-ordinator
John Stanley, MET

Gii-dibaajimo gaa-niigaaniitang aaniin aazha ezhisenig.
The meeting was held on Powwow Island at Rat Portage First Nation. The co-ordinator reported on the conference planning. Nancy Jones opened the meeting with a prayer.

 

Anokiitaaganag
Staff

Bezhig anishinaabekwens Tracey Robinson gii-maadanokii. Waabizii-zaaga段ganiing imaa Manitoba onjii. Gaawiin nitaa-anishinaabemosii, zhaagooch dash bi-wiiji段we owe dino gichi-maawaji段diwin e-gii-anokaadang odaanaang. Daisy Kejick miinawaa bezhig izhikaazo anishinaabekwe, Obizhigokaang onjii. Gichi-anishinaabe wiin o-da-wiiji誕a aaniish nitaa-anishinaabemo wiin. Bezhig miinawaa Nataasha Henderson izhinikaazo gikino誕mawaagan, Zaagiing onjii. Gaa-niigaaniitang gii-gagwejimaa wiin jiniigaanish kang apii maawaji段ding, wiin ji-niigaani-gaagiigidod.
The co-ordinator introduced the conference staff. The staff member present was the Assistant Co-ordinator Tracy Robinson who is from Swan Lake, Manitoba. Tracy does not speak Anishinaabemowin but previously helped organise a national conference. Daisy Kejick, Conference Assistant for the Elders, is from Lac Seul and speaks fluent Anishinaabemowin. She is able to talk easily to delegates including Elders from Quebec to Saskatchewan and who prefer to speak Anishinaabemowin.
A part-time staff person was university Anishinaabemowin language student Natasha Henderson from Sageeng (Ft. Alexander) First Nation in Manitoba. A chairperson would not be hired. The committee asked the co-ordinator to take that role since she was familiar with the objectives and orthographical issues.

 

Ge-biizhaawaad
Delegates

Ningoji 130 andomaawag awiyag. Geyaabi dash wiinzowinan gii-miinaa gaa-niigaanii-tang. Bakaan gaa-inwewaad wiin da-michi-ganawaabiwag. Nisiwag imaa Woodland Cultural Centre ge-bi-onjiiwaad, ji-bi-wiiji段wewaad. Baatiinwaa bi-maawaji段wewag. O-da-gikendaanaawaa aaniin mayaa ge-ayizhiiwaad, ji-ozhitoowaad ge-maamiigiweng jibwaa-maawaji段ding.
There was a list of 130 signed-up conference delegates. The committee submitted more names. Anihshininii-mowin (Oji-crees or Severn Ojibwe) will come as observers. Three Woodland Cultural Centre staff will arrive from Brantford to meet with conference staff and facilitators at the orientation meeting. They are experienced in holding conferences and will help to prepare handout materials and name tags.

Ge-Izhi-Gabeshiwaad Ge-biizhaawaad

Gichi-anishinaabeg wiin imaa Colony Hotel da-nibaawag. Godag dash Howard Johnson痴 da-izhi-nibe誕awag.

 

Gaa-gii-doodang gaa-gii-niigaaniid
Co-ordinator痴 Activities

April, 1995
O-gii-ganoonaan Agnes PeeAce-an, Saskatoon Indian Cultural Centre gaa-anokiinid wedi ningaabii誕nong Saskatchewan. O-gii-andomigoon dash ji-bii-waabamaad anishi-naabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagenid imaa Bagaani-zaaga段ganiing e-wii-dazhi-maawaji-idinind. Ozhibii段gewin o-gii-dazhindaanaawaa. Amii dash Pat gaa-izhi-wiindamaaged gaa-wii-inakamigag naasaab izhibii段gewin e-wii-dazhinjigaadeg.

April 1995
Pat made contact with Agnes PeeAce, Language Program Co-ordinator with the Saskatoon Cultural Centre and Saulteaux Language Instructor at the University of Saskatchewan. Mrs. PeeAce invited Pat to meet with Saulteaux language teachers at a meeting in Yellow Quill Reserve in Saskatchewan. She facilitated the symposium which met to discuss their orthography in Yellow Quill Reserve. Pat made a presentation telling them of this project and the plan for a conference in 1996 to standardise the orthography.

July, 1995
Nitam gii-nagishkodaadiwag Odaake-okobiwining owiijitwaag Animikii-Wiikwedong.

July 1995
First Steering Committee meeting in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

August, 1995
Gaa-niigaaniitang wedi waasa ningaabii誕nong Vancouver, British Columbia, gii-izhaa, e-gii-ando-bizindang anishinaabe-mazina段ganikewin e-dazhinjigaadenig. Gaa-zhaaganaashii- bii段gaadegin eta mazina段ganan memindage gaa-gii-dazhinjigaadegin. Anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagenid o-gii-ganoonaa. O-gii-mooshkinebii誕anaawaa mooshkinebii段gan. Saskatchewan gii-onjiiwag aaninda anishinaabeg imaa gaa-gii-izhaawaad.

August 1995
Pat travelled to Vancouver, British Columbia, to attend a conference on Aboriginal publishing. She participated in a workshop that dealt with issues in Aboriginal language publishing. She met new Anishinaabemowin language teachers and students who live in British Columbia. They filled out the questionnaire in order to attend the August conference. Some Saskatchewan Saulteaux language teachers and publishers were also there to discuss Aboriginal language publishing.

September, 1995
Gaa-niigaaniitang gii-izhaa anishinaabe-gikino誕maage gii-maawaji段dinid Wazhashko nigamiing. Gii-dagwii anishinaabemowin e-dazhinjigaadenig. O-gii-ozhitoon gaye mazinaatesijigan "Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii段geng" e-izhinikaadenig.

September 1995
Pat attended a meeting in Kenora of Treaty Three teachers, including those who teach the Anishinaabemowin language in First Nation schools. She was part of a panel discussion on language retention.

October, 1995
Gii-andomaa e-maawaji段dinid anishinaabe wedi Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Gichi-mookomaanakiing, Anishinaabemowin e-dazhindamowaad. Amii imaa gaa-izhi-wiindang aaniin waa-inakamigag, wegonen mayaa ge-dazhinjigaadeg. O-gii-odaapinaanan dash wiinzowinan, awiya gaa-wii-biizhaanid imaa Toronto.

October 1995
Pat attended a symposium of Anishinaabemowin language teachers in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. The local university sponsored this symposium, offering course credits to language students who were attending the conference. She spoke about standardisation of Anishinaabemowin language orthography and the upcoming conference.

November, 1995
November gii-bimangizod Ottawa gii-apizo e-gii-ando-waabamaad ini Algonquins gaa-izhinikaazonid anishinaabe imaa Golden Lake, Ontario. Pauline Decontien o-gii-wiijiiwigoon. Gaa-gikino誕maagenid anishinaabemowin o-gii-ando-ganoonaawaa. Maniwaki, Quebec miinawaa gii-ani-apizowag, imaa Pauline Decontie gaa-dananokiid. Ernest McGregor-an o-gii-megwaashkawaan, amii awe gaa-gii-maawadoonang ikidowinan gaa-niibidebii段gaadegin imaa mazina段ganing Algonquin Lexicon gaa-izhinikaadeg. Amos, Quebec, miinawaa gii-ani-izhaawag. Wiinge gichi-zoogipon e-maajiibizowaad. Wiinge gaye gichi-ayinaamadinaa imaa akiing. Rouyn-Noranda gii-ani- dagoshinowag. Michi-wemitigoozhiimowag igi anishinaabeg dago gaye e-anishinaabemowaad. Gaawiin aapiji nitaa-zhaaganaashiimosiiwag. Bangii eta gii-mayagitaagoziwag gii-anishinaabemowaad gaa-inwed Pat gewiin. Temiskaming miinawaa gii-ani-gibichiiwag. Gegapii Toronto gii-ani-giiwebizo gaa-ishkwaa-babaa-ganoonaad anishinaabe omaa.

November 1995
In mid-November, she flew to Ottawa and travelled to meet Algonquins in Golden Lake, Ontario, with Mrs. Pauline Decontie. They went to see Algonquin language teachers and school committee members there. They went on to Maniwaki, Quebec, where Mrs. Decontie works. Pat met her colleagues, including Mr. Ernest McGregor, compiler of the Algonquin Lexicon. They continued on to Amos, Quebec, to meet with Algonquin teachers from the nearby reserve, and later to Rouyn-Noranda. Since the co-ordinator痴 high school French was rather rusty, it was more efficient to speak in the Anishinaabe language when French and English became difficult. There was not much of a dialect problem when we spoke in our languages. There was no strange vocabulary. The next day they travelled south to Temiscaming to meet with other Algonquin teachers.

Toronto gii-ani-izhaa e-ando-waabamaad ini ge-wiiji段god ozhitood iwe maawaji段diwin. O-gii-waawaabandaan gaye iwe ge-danakamigag.

E-ani-waabang Lansing, Michigan gichi-mookomaanakiing gii-izhaa e-ando-waabamaad Joan Webkamigad-an ogimaawining e-dananokiinid. Bezhig miinawaa anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagenid Candace Escoval gaa-izhinikaazonid imaa Chicago o-gii-gagwe-waabamaan. Gii-aakozi dash gegapii, ozaam ginwesh e-babaami-ayaad, gegaa niizho-dwaate e-gii-ondendid. Ndawaa gii-giiwe zhemaag.
The following day, she went by bus to Lansing, Michigan, to meet with Joan Webkamigad, Michigan Department of Education. She also attempted to meet with Candace Escoval, Ojibwe language teacher in Chicago, and Ojibwe language teachers in Green Bay, Wisconsin but she became ill and flew home.

December 1995
Gii-ozhichigaade gaye agwa段gan ge-izhinizha段gaadeg miziwe ishkoniganing gaye imaa gaa-izhi-oko-anokiiwaad anishinaabeg.

1996

January, 1996
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan gii-izhaa, e-ando-nagishkawaad anishinaabe wedi. Oshki-izhichigewin Anishinaabemowin Tek e-izhinikaadeg omaajitoonaawaa. Gii-andomaa dash Pat ji-dagwiind imaa Board of Directors. O-gagwe-bimaajitoonaawaa anishinaabemowin miziwe ezhi-aabadag inwaade iwe oshki-izhichigewin. Memindage go imaa zhaawanong onjiiwag imaa gaa-dagwiiwaad. O-gii-waawiindamawaa idash aaniin ge-inakamigag apii niibing wedi Toronto, wegonen gaye ge-dazhinjigaadeg.

January 1996
Pat travelled to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, to attend the founding meeting of the Board of Directors of Anishinaabemowin Tek, of which she was a member. Its mandate is to preserve and maintain the Nishnaabemowin language throughout the region. She made a short presentation to the group about the conference this coming summer. The group is made up of Nishnaabemowin language teachers and administrators from southern Ontario, mostly from Manitoulin Island. She was the sole western, Anishinaabemowin representative.

Gii-ani-giiwebizod, Marquette, Michigan gii-gibichii e-gii-gagwe-waabamaad Don Chosa-wan, e-gii-michi-ganoonaapan giigidowining. Gikino誕maage anishinaabemowin imaa gichi-gikendaasoowigamigong University of Northern Michigan. Gaawiin dash ima gii-ayaasii awe inini. Bakaan awiyan ndawaa o-gii-ganoonaan. niigaaniitam awe ikwe imaa. Fond Du Lac Community College imaa Duluth, Minnesota, o-gii-ani-waabamaan ini anishinaaben Wilf Cyr gaa-izhinikaazonid. Anishinaabemowin gikino誕maage awe. Gii-inendam bizaanigo ji-wiiji段wed gewiin imaa gaa-wii-izhi-maawaji段ding.
On her way back to Lac Seul, she stopped at Marquette, Michigan, to meet with Don Chosa, who teaches Ojibwe at the University of Northern Michigan in Marquette but only the director of the Indian Studies program was able to meet with her. She stopped at the Fond Du Lac Community College in Duluth, Minnesota, to meet with Wilf Cyr, an Anishnaabemowin language instructor. He agreed to be a facilitator for the coming conference. He is originally from northwestern Ontario but teaches at the Fond Du Lac Community College.

February, 1996
Canadian Indian Teachers Education Program conference wedi waasa ningaabii誕nong Vancouver, British Columbia gii-izhaa e-gii-ando-ganoonaad anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagewaad gaye igi gaa-gagwe-nitaa-anishinaabemowaad. Iwe maawaji段diwin o-gii-dazhinaan.

February 1996
She travelled to the Canadian Indian Teachers Education Program conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, to hold a workshop on the topic of Anishinaabemowin language orthography standardisation. Ojibwe and Saulteaux language teachers and students who live in B. C. and other provinces took part in this workshop.

February 22, o-gii-ganoonaa anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕magenid imaa Manitoba Association for Native Languages Wiinibiigong. Wiinge dash gii-gichi-zoogiponooban iwe gaa-giizhigag. Amii gaa-izhi-maajii-gaagiiwewaad igi gikino誕maageg. Zhaagooch dash bangii awiya o-gii-ganoonaa.
On 22 February, Pat made a presentation at the Native language teachers conference in Winnipeg sponsored by the Manitoba Association for Native Languages.

March, 1996
Ojibwe Language Conference anishinaabemowin gaa-anokaadamowaad imaa Sault Ste Marie, gii-dazhi-maawaji段diwag Migiziwi-giizis 28, 29, 30 gii-inaginzod. Owe maawaji段diwin o-gii-dazhindaan, gaye wegonen ge-gii-onji-gagwe-odaapinigaadegiban naasaab anishinaabebii段gewin. O-gii-maawadoonaanan gaye wiinzowinan, awiyag gaa-wii- biizhaawaad imaa. Gii-maamiigiwe agwa段ganan, gaye e-gii-waabanda段wed iwe gaa-mazinaateseg dibaajimowin. Stella Kichi-moniyas-an Saskatchewan-ing gaa-onjiinid o-gii-megwaashkawaan imaa. Gii-inendam awe ikwe gewiin ji-wiiji段wed.

March 1996
Pat attended a regional annual Ojibwe Language Conference in Sault Ste Marie, from 28 to 30 March and she did a workshop on the coming conference, distributed posters, and collected names of Anishnaabemowin language teachers who would attend. She met Don Soscia from Marquette and spoke to him about the conference. She also met Stella Kichi-moniyas from Saskatchewan who agreed to be a facilitator.

April, 1996
Milles Lacs, Minnesota, Gichi-mookomaanakiing gii-izhaa e-ando-wiindamaaged gaa-wii- inakamiganinig Toronto niibing. National Aboriginal Languages Issues (NALI) Conference izhinikaade iwe gaa-gii-izhaad. O-gii-maajiidoon gaa-mazinaatesenig, gaye agwa段ganan. Niibiwa gaa-gikino誕maagenid imaa o-gii-ganoonigoo, e-wii-izhaanid.

April 1996
The co-ordinator went to Milles Lacs, Minnesota, to make a presentation on Anishnaabemowin orthography standardisation at the annual National Aboriginal Languages Issues (NALI) Conference. She took the video and distributed the posters there. There she met Ojibwe language teachers, administrators, and language students. A group of language activists and teachers were there from Lacs Courtes Oreilles.

May, 1996 May gii-maadaginzod Saskatoon gii-izhaa gikino誕maage e-ando-waabamaad e-maawaa- ji段dinid. Saskatchewan First National Language Instructors Workshop gii-izhinikaade.
May 1996
From 1 to 3 May, the co-ordinator went to Saskatoon in order to attend the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre (SICC) Saskatchewan First Nations Language Instructors Workshop. Pat met the Saulteaux language teachers who were present.
A steering committee took place on 25 May in Winnipeg.

June 1996
Ode段minigiizis gii-bimanginzod, Tracey Robinson-an o-gii-anokii誕an ji-wiiji段god. Ge-dazhi-gabeshiwaad ge-biizhaawaad gii-diba段gaade geshtine.

June 1996
On 24 June, Tracey Robinson was hired as Assistant Conference Co-ordinator. Rooms at the Colony Hotel and Howard Johnson痴 were booked and payment made.

July 1996
Ottawa gii-izhaa e-ando-gagwe-ondinaad geyaabi zhooniyaan imaa gichi-ogimaakaang Secretary of State, gaye dash e-wii-waabamaad Dorothy Lazore Kahnawake ga-onjiid. Saskatooning gii-izhaa Tracey Robinson Sarah Machiskinic-an o-gii-wiijiiwaan Red Deer Alberta dash gii-izhaawag e-andomaawaad anishinaabe wedi gaa-ayaanid. Ogimaakaanan o-gii-nagishkaagowaan wedi. Alice Strawberry izhinikaazowan, imaa Oojiins ishkonigan Rocky Mountain House. O-gii-wiindamawaa aaniin waa-inakamiganinig.

July 1996
On 4 July 1996, the co-ordinator went to Ottawa to meet with Gordon Big Canoe of the Department of Secretary of State, and with Dorothy Lazore of Kahnawake.
At the same time, Tracey flew to Saskatoon where she met SICC language student Sarah Machiskinic and they travelled by Greyhound Bus to Red Deer, Alberta. There, they met with Chief Alice Strawberry and her band councillors from the O辰hiese (Saulteaux) First Nation at Rocky Mountain House. She described the project to them and invited their Saulteaux language teachers, staff, and students to attend.

July gii-izhiseg, Natasha Henderson gii-maadanokii ji-wiijitwaad gewiin.
In mid-July, Natasha Henderson was hired as part-time help with organising the conference.

July 17, Animikii-wiikwedong gii-izhaa e-ando-ganoonaad awiya Native Language Instructors Program. Gikino誕mawaawag imaa anishinaabeg ji-nitaa-gikino誕maagewaad odizhigiizhwewiniwaa. O-gii-ozhibii誕anaawaa owiinzowiniwaa gaa-wii-biizhaawaad.
On 17 July 1996, the co-ordinator made a presentation at the weekly assembly of the Native Language Instructors Program (NLIP) at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario. These are Ojibwe, Chippewa, and Saulteaux language teachers who are enrolled in language teaching courses. She talked about the orthography conference in Toronto and afterwards spoke individually with those teachers interested in attending. These teachers filled out the questionnaire.

 

E-gii-ozhiitaang ji-maawaji段ding
Preparation For The Conference

1. Mooshkinebii段ganan
1. Questionnaire

Gii-ozhichigaade ango-mazina段igin e-gagwedweng gegoonan imaa, e-gagwejimindwaa awiyag aaniin wiinawaa enendamowaad ge-izhi-aabajichigaadegiban izhibii段gewin.
A one-page questionnaire was devised and sent out with the preliminary information packages to ask language teachers, Elders, and translators what orthographies they were presently using.

Gii-gagwejimaawag owe ji-anishinaabebii誕mowaad, nitam e-gii-zhaaganaashiibii段gaadeg eta: "gaa-onjiiyaan, gakina awiya gii-nitaa-anishinaabemo abinoojiiyag zhigwa gichi-anishinaabeg. Gii-odaminoyaang, ni-gii-michi-anishinaabemomin. Noongom dash wiinge bakaan inendaagwan. Gaawiin nitaa-anishinaabemosiiwag oshkaadiziig. Gaawiin ogashkitoosiinaawaa ji-ganoonaawaad omishoomisiwaa gaye ookomiwaa."
In the questionnaire, they were asked to translate this passage into their orthography: "Where I come from, everyone used to speak the Native language children and the Elders. When we played, we spoke only our language. Now, it痴 very different. The youth don稚 speak the Anishinaabe language. They can稚 talk to their grandparents."

The questionnaire consisted of ten points:

1. Aaniin ezhinikaanindizoyin? Algonquin Chippewa Ojibwe gemaa Saulteaux.
1. They are asked to name their language: Algonquin, Chippewa, Ojibwe, or Saulteaux.

2. Aandi wenjiiyin?
2. They then list their home area.

3. Aaniin apii gaa-maajii-izhibii段geyin iwe noongom gaa-izhibii段geyin?
3. How long they have used the orthography.

4. Aaniin enanokiiyin?
4. What their occupation or status is.

5. Aaniindi gaa-onji-gikino誕maagooyin iwe ji-izhi-bii段geyin?
5. Where they learned their writing system.

6. Gi-minwendaan na?
6. If they池e happy with it.

7. Ganage ogo Algonquin, Chippewa, Ojibwe zhigwa Saulteaux gaa-izhinikaazowaad bezhigwan izhigiizhwewag?
7. They are also asked if they think the Algonquins, Chippewas, Ojibwes, and Saulteaux speak the same language, and

8. Wegonen dash wenji-inendaman?
8. If the above groups should use one common writing system,

9. Wegonen ge-onji-gagwe aabajitooyamban naasaab anishinaabebii段gein?
9. Why the above groups should use one common writing system.

10. Waawiiba na ginandodaanan mazina段ganan bebakaan gaa-izhi-anishinaabebii段gaadegin?
10. They are also asked to state how often they order or use materials written in other orthographies.

Amii omaa gaa-onji-maawadoonigaadegin gaa-izhibii段gewaad anishinaabeg, aandi gaye wenjiiwaad, aaniin gaye enendamowaad.
This questionnaire helped gather different orthographies and and showed which regions have diverse orthographies (Macron/Phonetic, Double Vowel/Phonetic). It also provided more information on local Native language issues.

 

2. Agwa段gan
2. Poster

Agwa段gan o-gii-mazinibii誕an Pat 14" x 19" e-gii-inigokwaag. Oninjiin mazinibii段gaadewan e-ozhibii段geng. Gii-andomaawag dash anishinaabeg Ojibwe Saulteaux Chippewa zhigwa Algonquin gaa-izhinikaanindizowaad ji-biizhaawaad imaa maawaji段diwining Toronto niibininig. Naanwaak o-gii-ozhitoonan ono agwa段ganan. Gii-izhinizha段gaadewan dash miziwe, dago gaye dibaajimoo-mazina段ganens, omaa Canada gaye Gichi-mookomaanakiing gaa-danakiiwaad igo anishinaabeg.
A full-colour 14"x19" poster inviting Ojibwes, Saulteaux, Chippewas, and Algonquins to the orthography conference in Toronto was designed and drawn by the co-ordinator. Five hundred copies were printed and sent out with an information package to First Nations band offices, language teachers, Cultural Centres, Friendship Centres, Education Authority offices, and language development offices in Canada and the USA for the Anishinaabeg.

 

3. Gaa-Mazinaateseg Gii-Ozhichigaade: "Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii段geng".
3. Video: "Naasaab Izhi-anishinaabebii段geng" Finding a Common Ojibwe Orthography

September, October 1995 gii-izhiseg, o-gii-ozhibii誕an ge-biminizha段gaadeg ozhichigaadeg gaa-mazinaateseg, e-michi-anishinaabemoomagag. Nishwaaso-diba段ganens gii-akwaa iwe gaa-mazinaateseg. Amii dash gaa-izhi-wiindegin gaa-izhi-ositaawendamowaad anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagewaad. Wiinibiigong gii-onjiiwag gaa-gii-ozhitoowaad owe. Bezhig zhaaganaash Victor Dobchuk zhigwa anishinaabens Maeengan Linklater e-izhinikaazod. Bezhig dash anishinaabe Roger Roulette gii-gaagiigido imaa. Zaagiing ishkoniganing gii-izhaawag e-ando-mazinaatesijigewaad gikino誕maadiiwigamigong. Gii-dazhi-mazinaatesijigewag gaye miijimi-adaawewigamigong Neechee gaa-izhinikaadeg gaye imaa Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre gaye imaa Niji-mahkwa School gii-izhaawag. Waawiinde wegonen ge-onji-gagwe-odaapinigaadeg naasaab izhibii段gewin. Miziwe o-gii-babaamiwidoon owe gaa-mazinaatesenig gii-izhaad gaa-izhi-maawaji段diwaad anishinaabeg. Ontario Heritage Foundation izhichigewin gii-miigiwemagan zhooniyaan gaa-gii-aabadizid.
The co-ordinator wrote the Anishinaabe-only language script for an 8-minute video on orthographical issues facing our language teachers. In September and October 1995, she produced this video, hiring local cameraman Victor Dobchuk and production assistant Maeengan Linklater to shoot this video, with Roger Roulette as the on-camera host. The shooting was done at two schools at Sageeng First Nation (Fort Alexander Reserve), Neechee Food Store, Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre library, Nijimahkwa Elementary School, and other locations around Winnipeg, Manitoba. The different Saulteaux, Ojibwe, Chippewa, and Algonquin orthographies used in the different regions throughout Canada and the United States were shown. The host cited the reasons why the Anishinaabeg should adopt one writing system. This video was shown as a visual aid at Native language conferences and workshops by the co-ordinator for the rest of the year, before the conference. The video was funded by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, an agency of the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, Culture, and Recreation.

 

4. O-gii-ganoonaa Ge-Wiiji段wenid
4. Contacting The Facilitators

O-gii-babaa-ganoonaa ini ge-wiiji段god maawaji段ding. Miziwe gii-onjiiwag. Amii dash ogo gaa-niibide-wiinzowaad omaa.
During her travels, the co-ordinator contacted fluent and literate language teachers from Canada and the United States who were knowledgeable of language issues and asked them to facilitate workshops at the upcoming conference. The names of people who accepted this challenge follow.

Rene Barker gikino誕maage odizhigiizhwewin. Wiinibiigong izhidaa.
Rene Barker is a fluent and literate (Double Vowel) Ojibwe from Manitoba. He now lives in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Brian Cochrane gaye wiin ozhibii段ge odizhigiizhwewin. Imaa gaye Lorette, Manitoba gii-izhi-daa megwaa.
Brian Cochrane is a fluent and literate (Double Vowel) Ojibwe from Couchiching, Ontario, but living in Lorette, Manitoba.

Pauline Decontie gewiin nitaawibii段ge. Quebec onjii.
Pauline Decontie is a fluent and literate Algonquin from Quebec. She is also a Steering Committee member.

Laura James nitaa-gwaashkwebijiganibii段ge. Bizhiwi-zaaga段ganiing onjii. Pelican First Nation High School, imaa Sioux Lookout, Ontario noongom dazhi-gikino誕maage.
Laura James is a fluent and literate (Syllabics and Folk Phonetic) Ojibwe from Cat Lake, Ontario. She is presently an Anishnaabemowin language teacher for Pelican First Nation High School, in Sioux Lookout, Ontario.

Stella Kichimoniyas nitaawibii段ge gewiin. Saskatchewan onjii. Amii wedi endazhi-gikino誕maaged gewiin.
Stella Kichimoniyas is a fluent and literate (Macron) Saulteaux from Kinistin, Saskatchewan. She is a Saulteaux language instructor at the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College in Regina, Saskatchewan.

Pat Ningewance o-gii-naabishkawaan Wilf Cyran Minnesota gaa-dananokiinid.
Pat Ningewance replaced Wilf Cyr of Minnesota.

Agnes PeeAce nitaawibii段ge gewiin. Saskatchewan onjii. Amii gewiin wedi endananokiid imaa Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre.
Agnes PeeAce is a fluent and literate (Macron) Saulteaux from Yellow Quill First Nation, Saskatchewan. She is a Saulteaux Language Developer with the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre in Saskatoon and has taught the Saulteaux language for the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon campus.

Roger Roulette nitaawibii段ge. McGregor, Manitoba onjii. Winnipeg, Manitoba megwaa izhidaa, endananokiid.
Roger Roulette is a fluent and literate (Double Vowel) Ojibwe from McGregor, Manitoba (Sandy Bay Band). He has taught Anishnaabemowin evening courses for the Manitoba Association for Native Languages in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He is presently documenting Ojibwe Elders stories in the language for the Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Lois Thomas nitaawibii段ge. Saskatchewan onjii. Amii gewiin wedi endazhi-gikino誕maaged.
Lois Thomas is a fluent and literate (Macron) Saulteaux from Kinistin, Saskatchewan. She is presently a Saulteaux language teacher in Saskatchewan.

 

5. Gii-Odaapinindwaa ge-biizhaawaad
5. Selection of Conference Delegates

Gaa-gii-mooshkinebii段gaadegin mooshkinebii段ganan. Obizhigokaang gii-izhinizha-igaadewan. Amii dash gaa-onji-gikendang awe gaa-niigaaniid awenenan waa-biizhaanid, aaniin gaye ezhibii段genid.
Completed questionnaires were mailed to Lac Seul First Nation, Ontario. These questionnaires were filled out by language teachers, translators, Elders, education administrators, and language students. The co-ordinator also met potential delegates at consulting meetings, conferences, and workshops that she attended throughout the year. On 20 July the Steering Committee made the final selection so that equal numbers of delegates would come from the different regions, as much as possible. Language teachers most often responded to the questionnaire. Next were Elders and second-language learners and thirdly, the translators.

 

6. E-Gii-Ozhiitaawaad Gaa-wii-wiiji段wewaad
6. Facilitators Preparatory Meeting

Gii-dagoshinoog imaa Toronto igi ge-wiiji段wewaad August 5. Colony Hotel gii-izhi-gibichiiwag. Gaa-ishkwaa-waawiindamaadiwaad ezhinikaazowaad, aandi gaye wenjii-waad, gii-wiindamawaawag dash aaniin ge-izhichigewaad nisogon ge-anokiiwaad. Amii gaa-izhi-ozhiitaawaad. Nitam o-gii-gojitoonaawaan ini odaminowinan ge-odamino誕awaad ge-wiidabimigowaad. Gaye, o-gii-dazhindaanaawaan giizhaach ini ge-dazhinjigaadenigin, ji-gikendamowaad gwayaanch.
The facilitators arrived in Toronto on 5 August to be prepared by the co-ordinator for the conference. They met in the Colony Hotel which served as the working site. They introduced themselves and briefly described their background in the Anishinaabemowin language. They were given the planned three-day schedule. They played the two warm-up games to be used in their workshops and chose kinship terms that would be mutually understood by all the delegates from Quebec to Saskatchewan and the United States. They listed all the language issues to include in their opening remarks in the conference workshops. These issues had been identified at previous language conferences.

O-gii-onwaanaawaa dash awenena ge-wiidabimaawaad imaa gaa-izhi-maawaji段ding. Niishtana aaniish ji-dashiwaad endaso-okobiwining. Amii gaa-gagwe-izhichigewaad endaso-okobiwining ji-de-dashiwaad gikino誕mawaaganag gaye gikino誕maageg, gaye gichi-anishinaabeg.
Then they took the list of delegates from the five areas. Delegates names were assigned to each facilitator so that there would be an equal number of delegates from each area distributed in the nine workshops. The facilitator wanted to distribute evenly the students, Elders, and teachers so that no facilitator would have only Elders or teachers in their group.

O-gii-ozhibii誕anaawaan gaye gaa-izhibii段gewaad anishinaabeg, ji-mangibii段gaadenigin gichi-mazina段iginong, ji-waabandamowaad awiyag aaniin ezhibii段geng miziwe.
To prepare visual aids, the facilitators studied orthographies Double Vowel, Macron, Folk Phonetics, and Syllabics. They printed them on Bristle board, using coloured magic markers in order to show clearly the different systems in use.

O-gii-ozhitoonaawaa gaye ikidowin ge-maamawi-anishinaabebii段gaadeg maawaji段ding. Gakina dash inwewinan imaa ji-aabadakin gii-gagwe-doodamoog: e, i, o, a, p/b, t/d, s/z, k/g, sh/c/s/zh/j, ch/j/tch/dj, m, n, y, h, w, kw-.
Then they composed a sentence to be translated by each group. The sentence had to contain words which are exactly the same in all dialects. It also had to contain all the sounds of the language: all seven vowels, nasalised vowels, p/b, t/d, s/z, k/g, sh/c/s/zh/j, ch/j/tch/dj, m, n, y, h, w, kw. This sentence would be translated by each group as an exercise.

 

Ji-Nagajitoowaad Ge-dazhinjigaadegin
Familiarisation with the issues

Gii-waabanjigaadewan ini mooshkinebii段ganan. Amii dash ini gaa-niibidebii段gaadegin akawe. Amii aaniish ezhi-ositaawendamowaad gaa-gikino誕maagewaad anishinaabemowin miziwe. Gaye ajina o-gii-dazhindaanaawaa aaniin ge-izhinikaajigewaad.
The pre-conference questionnaire that was distributed had asked "Should the Anishinaabe language be standardised?" The following are some answers which reflect some of the issues that Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Chippewa, and Algonquin language teachers must contend with in their communities. The linguistic terminology was discussed briefly, so that the facilitators would be prepared to talk clearly about these ideas.

Gaa-gii-dazhindegin Aanind Gegoonan:
Some Language Issues (Should the Anishinaabe language be standardised?):

"Naasaab daa-gagwe-izhibii段gaade anishinaabemowin wii-ozhibii段gaadeg"
"Ojibwe is an oral language, but the written language should be standardised"

"Amanjisa. Igi gaa-gii-gikino誕mawindwaa ji-ozhibii誕mowaad odizhigiizhwewi-niwaa, aazha miinawaa da-gikino誕mawaawag ji-aanjibii段gewaad. Ozaam aazha ginwesh dazhinjigaade ozhibii段gewin." (gaa-gichi-gikino誕mawind gaa-gii-ikidod)
"I don稚 know. All these groups [who use their own system] will have to attend school to learn another way. We池e already losing time with our language" (a university-trained Anishinaabemowin language teacher who uses Double-Vowel)

"Eya, onizhishin bezhigwan ji-izhibii段geng. Niizhoobii段gewin na gakina awiya aazha gaa-aabajitood?" (wiin gii-gikino誕maazo awe, niizhoobii段ge)
"Yes, consistency [is good], but aren稚 most people using Double Vowel now anyway?" (a self-taught student who has studied Anishinaabemowin for ten years)

"Gegaa maawiin daa-onizhishin bezhigwan ji-izhibii段geng, gegaa dash gaye gaa-wiin." (gii-gikino誕maazo ji-ozhibii段ged, midaaso-biboon gikino誕maage)
"Possibly. Standardisation has its pros and cons." (a self-taught, Anishinaabemowin-language teacher who has taught ten years)

"Eya. Anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagewaad daa-maamiinidiwag ge-aabajitoowaad gikino誕maagewaad. Naasaab dash izhibii段gaadegin nawach daa-wendan ji-aabajitooyin aanawi bangii bakaan inwed awe gaa-gii-ozhitood." (gichi-gikino誕mawaa awe gaa-gikino誕maaged, niizhoobii段ge, 1979 ako)
"Yes. Native-as-a-Second-Language teachers need to share curriculum and teaching ideas written in the Native tongue. A standard orthography makes it easier to translate into the dialect you speak." (a university-trained Anishinaabemowin-language teacher who has used the Double Vowel system since 1979)

"Daa-onizhishin. Gaawiin dash wiin igo memwaach. Nawach gichi-inendaagwan ji-noondaagwakin gaa-inweg anishinaabemowin." (gaa-gikino誕maadizod anishinaabemowin)
"Yes, it would be nice but not critical. Sounds and imprinting on minds are more important." (a self-taught student of Anishinaabemowin)

"Gaawiin." (gichi-gikino誕mawaa gaa-gikino誕maaged anishinaabemowin.)
"I don稚." (a university-trained Anishinaabemowin-language teacher)

"Wiinawaa o-daa-onwaadaanaawaa gaa-anishinaabemowaad, gaa-onjiiwaad igo.
"I think that should be decided by each group. I don稚 think we should use colonial methods we are rejecting." (a university-trained student who has studied Anishinaabemowin for two years)

"Gaawiin, ozaam bebakaan gidinwemin. Ozaam bakaan daa-inwechigaadeni odi-zhigiizhwewiniwaa anishinaabeg." (gichi-gikino誕mawaa gaa-gikino誕maaged anishinaabemowin niiwi-gikinoonowin aazha)
"No, [because of] dialect differences. Just as long as their language does not lose the correct pronunciation." (a university-trained, Anishinaabemowin-language teacher who has taught for four years)

"Eya."

"Eya, amii dash ge-izhi-gashkitooying ji-gikino誕mawangwaa gi-niijaanisensinaa-nig gidizhigiizhwewininaan, ozaam aazha gi-baatiinomin gaa-wanitooying iwe." (gaa-gagwe-nitaa-anishinaabemod)
"Yes. So that we may teach the young children our language since so many of us have lost our language." (a student of Anishinaabemowin)

"Zhaagooch igo ji-maajii-gikino誕mawangwaa gi-niijaanisinaanig. Daa-aabadan maawiin ozhibii段gan." (anishinaabe)
"We have to begin to our children from somewhere. We have to maintain some sort of system." (an Ojibwe)

"Gaawiin. Gakinawenen osha daa-gagwe-anishinaabemo gaa-onjiiwaad." (gaa-gichi- gikino誕mawind gaa-gakino誕maaged anishinaabemowin)
"No. Everyone should use the mother tongue taught in their area." (a university-trained Anishinaabemowin-language teacher)

"Eya. Niibiwa aazha gaa-gikino誕maagewaad niizhoobii段gan odaabajitoonaawaa. Daa-onizhishin dash giishpin gakina iwe izhi-aabajitoowaad gaa-gikino誕mawaawaad abinoojiiyan." (gaa-gichi-gikino誕mawind gaa-gikino誕maaged anishinaabemowin niiwi-gikinoonowin aazha)
"Yes, so many teachers are using the double vowel system. So all teachers should use it in case one student should happen to learn from more than one teacher." (a university-trained Anishinaabemowin-language teacher who has taught for 4 years)

"Gaawiin, ozaam baatiinwewaanaganoon gaa-inweng. Ozaam miziwe gid-ayaamin. (Gichi-anishinaabe)
"No, because of different dialects. The locations make it different." (an Ojibwe Elder)

"Gaawiin gi-daa-gagwe-wanitoosiimin gaa-inweying."
"We must not lose the unique features of our language."

"Gi-daa-aabajitoomin osha niizhoobii段gewin."
"We must use the double vowel system."

"Gaawiin wiin zhemaag gi-ga-gashkitoosiimin ji-nagajitooying ozhibii段gan."
"We give it time to get to know it."

"Zhaagooch igo ji-maajitaaying ningoji."
"We got to start from somewhere."

"Naasaab izhibii段gewin gi-nandawendaamin."
"We do need one common writing system."

"Wendan ji-gikino誕mawindwaa abinoojiiyag ji-nitaa-aginjigewaad."
"It痴 easy to teach young children how to read."

"Gikino誕maw gaa-agaashiiwiwaad ji-nisidotamowaad akawe, baamaa dash igi gaa-ani- mindidowaad daa-gagwe-nitaawibii段gewag."
"Teach first-level speaking and sounds. Level 2, start writing and reading"

"Daa-onizhishin naasaab ji-izhibii段geying. Niizhoobii段gewin wiinge minose."
"Orthography standardising a good goal, double vowel a good system"

"Ni-michi-midaashi-naananimin gaa-anishinaabemowaang gaa-onjiiyaan."
"Only 15 of us who speak the language at home"

鮮in-daa-minwendaan ji-waabandamaan ji-ozhibii段gaadeg anishinaabemowin. Geget dash daa-onizhishin gaye ji-anishinaabemong. Ni-niigi段goog gii-agajiwag ji-gikino誕mawishiwaad ji-anishinaabemowag."
"I look forward to seeing the written language but also agree it should be spoken. My parents were ashamed to teach me Ojibwe"

"Gwaashkwebijiganibii段gan, anishinaabebii段gan, noongom dash niizhoobii段gan. Ji-onji-anishinaabemowing."
"Syllabics, phonetic and now double vowel. For Native language"

"Namanjisa." (anishinaabe)
"I don稚 know." (an Ojibwe)

"Daa-onizhishin naasaab ji-izhibii段geying, gaawiin dash wiin naasaab ji-inweng."
"It would be good if it means just standardising the writing system and not the language itself."

"Eya. Ozaam aazha gi-wanitoomin gidinwewininaan. Giishpin awiya anishinaa-bemonotawaasiwag, amii ndawaa mazina段ganing ji-onji-gikino誕maadiying gidinwewininaan." (giiwedinong gaa-onjiid gikino誕mawaagan)
"Yes. Because we are losing our language. When there is nobody to speak to us, we have to learn from reading the language." (a student in Northwestern Ontario)

"Eya. Amii dash gaye ge-izhi-wanitooyingiban gichi-anishinaabeg gaa-gii-onji-izhi-gikino誕mawangidwaa gidizhigiizhwewininaan. Gaawiin o-da-wii-gagwe-gikendaziinaawaa oshki-ozhibii段gewin giishpin gwaashkwebijanibii段gewin eta gikendamowaad." (gikino誕mawaagan)
"Yes. Yet you may lose the traditional Elders way. They may not want to learn the new system if they are accustomed to syllabics." (a student)

"Gaawiin. Ozaam bakaan gakina gidinwemin." (gaa-gichi-gikino誕mawind gaye gaa-gii-gikino誕maadizod anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maaged, gaye aanakanootamaage)
"No. Because of different dialects" (a university-trained and self-taught in syllabics Ojicree language teacher and translator)

"Eya. Amii dash ge-izhi-maamiinidiying ge-aabajitooying gikino誕maageying. (gaa-gii- gikino誕maazod anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maaged Saskatchewan)
"Yes, so that we can share materials" (a self-taught, Saulteaux language teacher who has taught for one year in Saskatchewan)

"Eya. Gi-ga-ayizhinizha誕maadimin dash mizina段ganan." (gaa-gichi-gikino誕ma-wind gaa-gikino誕maaged Saskatchewan)
"Yes, so we can share materials" (a university-trained, Saulteaux language teacher in Saskatchewan)

"Eya. Giishpin naasaab izhibii段geying, gi-ga-maamawibii誕amin gaa-gii-ozhibii誕-mang, nawach dash niibiwa gi-ga-ayaamin." (Gichi-gikino誕mawaagan)
"Yes, well, if we standardise it and put all the information together, we could have more sharing of materials and bring everyone up together. (a university-trained, Anishinaabemowin language teacher)

"Eya. Gi-ga-miinindimin dash mazina段ganan." (Gichi-gikino誕maawagan gaa-gikino誕maaged odinwewin, gaye aanakanootamaage ango-gikinoonowin)
"Yes, so we can share materials" (a university-trained, Native language teacher and translator who has taught for one year)

"Eya. Daa-onizhishin bezhigwayag izhibii段gewin gakina ji-aabajitoowaapan." (Gichi-gikino誕mawaagan, midaaso-gikinoonowin aazha gikino誕maage.)
"Yes, it would be beneficial to use one spelling system for everyone." (a university-trained, Saulteaux language teacher who has taught for ten years)

"Eya, gi-daa-memeshkwadoonamaadimin ge-aabajitooying gikino誕maageying." (Gaa-gikino誕maadizod gikino誕maage Saskatchewan)
"Yes, we could use and exchange teaching materials." (a self-taught, Saulteaux language teacher in Saskatchwan)

"Eya, nawach da-wendan."(Gaa-gii-gikino誕mawind gaa-gikino誕maaged midaas-wi- gikinoonowin)
"Yes, it would be more helpful, material-wise." (a university-trained, Native language teacher who has taught for ten years)

"Eya, daa-wendan ji-gikino誕maagoo誕ambaan." (gaa-gii-gikino誕mawind gikino-amaage, midaaswi-gikinoonowin e-gikino誕maaged.)
"Yes, it would be very easy to learn." (a university-trained, Native language teacher who has taught for ten years and used the Double Vowel system)

"Gid-ani-wanitoomin gidinwewininaan." (Gikino誕maage)
"Generation after generation, we are slowly losing our language." (teacher)

"Gi-daa-gikino誕maagemin gidinwewininaan gikino誕maadiiwigamigong. Amii aaniish imaa eta ge-izhi-gikino誕mawindwaa abinoonjiyag. Aanawi nawach daa-gagwe- nitaa-anishinaabemowag endaawaad." (Gichi-anishinaabe)
"Our language needs to be taught at school because that痴 the only place children will learn. Ideally, it should be taught at home." (Elder)

"Oshki-ikidowinan gi-daa-gagwe-ozhitoomin." (gaa-aanakanootamaaged)
"New words need to be made as new objects or inventions appear." (Translator)

"Bezhig naasaab izhibii段gewin gi-daa-mino-doodaagomin." (Gichi-anishinaabe)
"One common writing system would benefit the Ojibwe nation." (Elder)

"Ganage daa-maanzhise gidinwewininaan giishpin aanakanootamang zhaagan-aashiimowin, gemaa giinawind igo gaa-inweying?" (Gikino誕maage)
"Would translating the language from one language to another lose its cultural 叢urity or would we lose our own dialects?" (Teacher)

"Aaniin ge-izhi-wiindamaagewaad ge-biizhaawaad imaa gaa-izhi-maawaji段ding apii giiwewaad, ji-nisidotawindwaa gaa-onjiiwaad?" (Gikino誕maage)
"How are delegates going to present this information back home about what was discussed so that it could be understood?" (Teacher)

"Agaasiino zhooniyaa ji-ozhichigaadegin mazina段ganan."
"Money is limited for publishing."

 

Gaa-Gii-Michi-Wiijitwaawaad
Volunteers

Niswi anishinaabeg imaa Woodland Cultural Centre gii-bi-onjiiwag, e-gii-bi-wiiji蜘e-waad: Amos Keye, Angie Monture zhigwa Joan Greenbird. Bezhig anishinaabekwe Lila Duffy izhinikaazo gaa-gii-bi-wiijitwaad niso-giizhig. Gikino誕mawaagan awe. Manitoba gii-onjii. Paul Von Wichert izhinikaazo miinawaa bezhig zhaaganaash, gikino誕mawaagan, Manitoba e-gii-bi-onjiid, e-gii-bi-wiijitwaad niso-giizhig. Ge-maamiigiweng maawaji段ding o-gii-ozhitoonaawaan, ge-gigishkamowaad gaye mazina段iginoonsan wiinzowinan ge-atenigin.
Three Woodland Cultural Centre staff Amos Keye, Angie Monture, and Joan Greenbird arrived on Wednesday to help organise. Lila Duffy, Anishinaabemowin student from Manitoba, arrived to help for all three days. Another Winnipeg Anishinaabemowin student, Paul Von Wichert, was visiting in Toronto, and donated his time to help for three days. An organising meeting was held that afternoon with the staff, volunteers, and facilitators. The Brantford group helped the conference staff greatly by stuffing the conference handouts the night before and by preparing the name tags and registration lists.

 

Maawaji段diwin
The Conference

Ontario Room imaa gichi-waakaa段ganing Macdonald Block, 900 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario gii-danakamigan.
The conference was held at the Ontario Room, in the Macdonald Block, 900 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario. Nearby break-out rooms were used for workshops.

 

Nitam Gaa-giizhigag: August 8, 1996
First Day: Thursday, 8 August 1998

Mayaa gii-zhaangaso-diba段ganeyaag gii-maajitaawag, Pat e-gii-boozhoo誕ad gaa-dagoshinonid. Bezhig gichi-aya誕a gii-anami誕a nitam. Gii-maajii-gaagiigidowag dash igi anishinaabeg miziwe gaa-gii-bi-onjiiwaad. Nitam Shirley Williams gii-giigido, zhaawanong imaa Ontario e-onjibaad. Miinawaa dash Linda Pelly-Landrie gii-giigido, wedi ningaabii誕nong Saskatchewan e-onjiid. Miinawaa Donat Mushoom, gii-giigido, akiwenzi wedi waabanong Quebec e-onjiid. Obizhigokaa-ogimaakaan dash Roy Carpenter, gii-giigido. Thomas Stillday gii-giigido, akiwenzi wedi Minnestoa e-onjiid. Miinawaa dash Mark Thompson, Manitoba gaa-onjiid, gii-giigido.
The opening introductory speeches and greetings began at 9:00 AM. Pat Ningewance chaired the conference. She introduced the following speakers from the different regions:
Shirley Williams, Manitoulin Island
Linda Pelly-Landrie, Saskatchewan
Donat Mushoom, Quebec
Chief Roy Carpenter, Lac Seul First Nation, Northern Ontario
Thomas Stillday, Minnesota
Mark Thompson, Manitoba

Gii-naawakwewiisiniwag dash akawe. Gaa-ishkwaa-wiisining, gakina gii-bapakewag gaa-gii-inindwaa ji-izhaawaad, ji-awi-dazhindamowaad ozhibii段gewin. Amii dash imaa gii-wiindamaadiwaad ezhinikaazowaad, aaniin gaye enanokiiwaad, enwaazowaad.
Lunch was served in the Ontario Room. After lunch, the delegates went to their pre-assigned workshop rooms.
In each workshop, the delegates all introduced themselves briefly, stating their name and their status or occupations (Elder, student, teacher, or translator).

Akawe gii-odamino誕awag. Gii-gagwejimaawag ji-ozhibii誕mowaad ono: nindaanis, nookom, nigozis, nizigos, wiinawaa go gaa-izhibii段gewaad ji-aabajitoowaad. Amii dash gaa-izhi-meshkwadoonamaadiwaad ini mazina段iginoonsan. Amii dash gaa-izhi-niibawiwaad naawisag, gii-wiindamawaawaag ji-gashkanzagwaabiwaad, ji-anamitoowaad dash iwe gaa-dakonamowaad mazina段iginoons, ji-nandotamowaad dash godag bezhigwan gaa-inwenid awiyan, ji-gagwe-wiijigaabawitawaawaad, ji-minjiminidiwaad mikodaadiwaad. Gii-gichi-baapiwag owe e-odaminowaad. Amii dash gaye gaa-izhi-gikendamowaad naasaab ngwana e-izhinikaajigewaad, bebakaan dash eta e-izhibii段gewaad. Zhaagooch dash o-gii-nisidawinaanaawaa odoozhibii段ganiwaa.
As an ice-breaker exercise, each delegate wrote down, in his/her own orthography, one of the following kinship terms: "my daughter" (nin-daanis/ni-tanis/ne-dah-niss), "my grandmother" (nookom/nokom/nokom), "my son" (nin-gozis/ni-kosis/neegozes), "my mother-in-law" (ninzigos/nisikos/nezickos). Then the facilitator took them and gave one term to each delegate who had a different orthography. Some were written in double vowel, some macron and the rest in folk phonetics. Then delegates were asked to stand in the middle of the room, close their eyes, and say the kinship term that they were given. They were to keep saying the word loudly and listen for others who had the same word. Then they would find each other and hang on to each other. When they had all found each other, the game was over. They enjoyed this game because it was humourous. It also showed them that they had exactly the same words for those kinship terms even though they had to look carefully to read each other痴 writing.

Miinawaa o-gii-dazhindaanaawaa ajina gakina gegoonan gaa-izhi-ositaawisewaad gaa-gikino誕maagewaad gii-gikino誕maagewaad odinwewiniwaa. Aazha nasine maawadoo-bii段gaadewan ono ositaawisewinan, odaanaang gii-maawaji段diwaad anishinaabeg. Baatiinwayag izhi-maanzhisewag gikino誕maageg e-gagwe-gikino誕mmagewaad. Naasaab ozhibii段gewin eta bezhig gegoon bangii ge-gii-izhi-maajii-gwayakosegiban gegoon.
Next, the facilitator briefly spoke about the problems which face our language teachers as they try to do their jobs. These problems have been listed and recommendations written at many Native language conferences. One common orthography is not a cure-all but it is a good beginning to addressing some of the problems for language teachers.

Gii-gagwejimaawag, "Wegonen ge-gii-onji-gagwe-bezhigotooyingiban ozhibii段gewin?" Gii-nakwetamoog dash bepezhig owe gagwedwewin. Amii dash gegaa gakina gaa-ikidowaad ji-gii-gagwe-ozhitoowaad naasaab ozhibii段gewin miziwe gaa-izhi-anishinaabekaag. Memindage igi gaa-niizhoobii段gewaad gaa-gii-ikidowaad bezhig ozhibii段gan ji-ayaagiban. Igi dash wiin gaa-jakibii段gewaad, o暖ikendaanaawaa bakaan dino ozhibii段gewin e-aabajichigaadenig miziwe imaa waakaaya段ing. Zhaagooch dash.ominwendaanaawaa gii-jakibii段gewaad. Ozaam daa-zanagan ji-aanjichigaadeg gaa-izhibii段gewaad maawiin inendamowag. Ginwesh o-gii-dazhiikaanaawaa ji-gagwe gikendamowaad iwe izhibii段gewin inendamowag. Igi dash wiin wiinawaa go gaa-izhibii段gewaad gaa-initamowaad anishinaabemowin amii gaa-ikidowaad e-gii-gikino誕mawaasiwindwaa ji-anishinaabebii段gewaad gikino誕maadiiwigamigong.
The delegates were asked the question: "Why should we strive to have one common writing system?" Each one in the circle answered the question. The answers were mostly favourable towards a common orthography, especially those who write the Double Vowel system. Generally, those who wrote the Macron were aware that a more widely used system existed outside their area but many still wished to keep their own system. The inconvenience of having to learn a new orthography after years of mastering a different system was the usual reason for keeping their own system. Those who wrote in folk phonetics were usually against writing in the language but admitted that they had not learned any writing system in school.

 

E-Ani-Waabang: August 9 (Friday), 1996
Second Day: Friday, 9 August 1996

E-gizhebaawagag gii-inaawag miinawaa ji-odaminowaad. Gii-waakaabiwaad, aabita gii-inaawag ji-ozhibii誕mowaad gagwedwewin. Wegonen igo ji-gagwedwewaad. Aabita dash miinawaa, gii-inaawag ji-ozhibii誕mowaad nakwetamowinan. Wegonen igo. Amii dash gaa-izhi-meshkodoonamaadiwaad. Bezhig dash o-gii-anamitoon gagwedwewin, gaa-biidaasamabinid e-gagwejimaad. Amii dash ini gaa-izhi-nakwetaagod, e-anamitood gaa-dakonang mazina段iginoons. Gii-gichi-baapiwag e-wawiiyazitaagwakin aanind ini gaa-ikidowaad. Gii-nisidotaadiwag aaniish, e-nisidawinamowaad ozhibii段gan, aanawi bebakaan e-izhibii段gewaad anishinaabeg. Bezhigwan aaniish gidinwemin gii-anishinaabewiying, aandi go gii-bi-onjiiying.
The delegates went to their workshops and performed a warm-up exercise. The group was divided into two groups, A and B. Each person on the A-side was asked to write on a piece of paper, in his/her orthography, a random question that begins with "why?" The B-side wrote random answers. Then the pieces of paper were mixed and exchanged with the other side. Then the first person on B-side had to read a question to the first A-side who then read an answer. Then the next B-side person read the next question, and so on. The random answers to the questions ranged from the ridiculous to the apt. The group enjoyed this game and again learned that they do share one language although they come from distant points. Again, the game showed that although we do share a language, it would be easier also to share one way of spelling our language.

Onji誕awasowinan
"Do痴 And Don稚s"

Bakaan miinawaa gii-izhi-gagwejimaawag ji-doodamowaad. Gakina gidanishinaabewi-min, aanawi bebakaan e-onjiiying. Mewinzha maawiin bezhigwanong gi-gii-ayaa-minaadog ningoji waabanong. Naanaage dash gi-gii-osweshkaamin, aanind ningaabii誕nong e-gii-izhaaying, aanind gaye zhaawanong. Zhaagooch dash bezhigwan gidizhitwaamin. Amii gaye bezhigwan gaa-izhi-onji段gooying gii-abinoonjiiwiying. Amii dash ono gaa-maawadoonigaadegin imaa gaa-gii-izhi-maawaji段ding:
The next activity is described below. The facilitator pointed out that we are one Aboriginal "tribe" called Anishinaabeg. We once shared the same territory but over the centuries, we disbanded and dispersed throughout Turtle Island. Through the passage of time and over great geographical distances, we still maintained our customs, our beliefs, and our language. No matter where we lived on the prairies, in evergreen forests along lakes and rivers, or among warmer deciduous woodlands we still remained the same people. We were raised with similar, often exactly the same, teachings. The facilitator asked the delegates to list the teachings, or "do痴 and don稚s" that they could remember. The purpose of this exercise was to stress the point again that we are the same people with the same language despite various dialects and orthographies.
The following teachings were collected at the workshops.

1. Agwana誕n waabamon animikiikaag / binesiiwang.
1. Cover the mirror during a thunderstorm.

2. Wiiba goshkozin ziigwang.
2. Wake up early in the spring time.

3. Gego miijiken waaboozotawagan. Gi-ga-gotaajishk.
3. Don稚 eat rabbit ears or you値l be scared.

4. Ikwezensag, gego miijikeg giigoowijaaban.Gi-niijaanisag da-babiikwaakojaabiwag.
4. Girls, don稚 eat fish eyes or your kids will have beady eyes.

5. Gego inoowaaken awiya.
5. Don稚 point at people.

6. Gego aadisookeken niibing. Omagakii gi-ga-noonaanig gizidaang, gemaa nibaaying.
6. Don稚 tell legends in the summer or a frog will suck your toe.

7. Giishpin biindigesed bineshii biinji-waakaa段ganing, awiya gaa-gikenimad da-nibo.
7. Don稚 tell legends in the summer or a frog will creep into your bed and suck you.

8. Gego gwiishkoshiken agwajiing dibikag. Gi-ga-basiingweganaamig awiya.
8. Don稚 whistle outside at night or someone will slap you.

9. Giishpin wiikaa gawishimoyin, gi-ga-biindigeyaabamig awiya ji-miskwiingwed.
9. A red face will come look at you if you don稚 go to bed early.

10. Gego ombiigiziken jibwaa-gawishimoyin. Gi-ga-naazikaag misaabe.
10. Don稚 make a lot of noise before going to sleep or a giant will come to your home.

11. Gego nisaaken asabikeshi. Da-gimiwan.
11. Don稚 kill a spider or a barn swallow or it will rain.

12. Gego mawikaazoken. Gegoo gi-ga-izhise ji-onji-mawiyin.
12. Don稚 pretend to cry or you値l get a real reason to cry.

13. Gego boodaadangen mashkosi ji-noondaagwag. Da-biizhaa ginebig.
13. Don稚 blow on a blade of grass to make a squeaking sound or a snake will come.

14. Weweni doodaw biiwideg memindage gichi-anishinaabeg.
14. Respect visitors, especially Elders.

15. Gego baapi誕aken awiya. Amii gegiin ge-izhiseyin gaa-baapitooyin.
15. Don稚 laugh at anyone or it will come back to you.

16. Ikwezensag, gego baazhida誕ngeg gegoon.
16. Girls, don稚 step over anything.

17. Ikwezensag, gego bakaan awiya o-da-aabajitoosiin giminikwaaganan.
17. Girls, use your own cup, so no one else will use it and be weakened by you.

18. Ikwezensag, gego zhiishiigikeg naawikana. Da-miniiwijaabi awiya ge-dakokaadang gizhigiwin.
18. Girls, don稚 pee in the centre of the road; whoever steps on it will get gummy eyes.

19. Ikwezensag, gego miijikeg miinag megwaa izhiiyaayin. Gaawiin aapiji da-miini-kaasinoon.
19. Girls, don稚 eat berries while having monthlies or it値l be a bad crop.

20. Ikwezensag, gego odamino誕akeg abinoonjiiyensag nitam ayaawaad.
20. Girls, don稚 play with babies the first year.

21. Ikwezensag, gego bagizokeg gigidaasensiweg. Wiinizisimaa-zagaskway gi-ga-biinji- shkaagowaa.
21. Girls, don稚 swim without pants or a hairsnake will enter you.

22. Gookom izhinikaazh gichi-ikweg. Giin dash gigookom nikookomis izhinikaazh.
22. Treat everyone as your grandmother but call your own grandmother "nikokomis."

23. Gego ombiigiziken. Gichi-gookooko弛o gi-ga-biina弛g otawagaang.
23. Don稚 make too much noise or a big owl will take you and put you in his ear.

24. Gego zhazhiibitawaaken gi-mishoomis. Makwa gi-ga-nagishkawaa.
24. Don稚 disobey your grandparents or you will meet a bear.

25. Wanitooyin giibid, anami誕an ji-bi-zaagakiig miinawaa bezhig.
25. When you lose a tooth, you must pray for one to replace it.

26. Wanitooyin giibid, giiwedinong apagidoon andawendaman miinawaa bezhig ji-bi-zaagakiig.
26. When you lose a tooth, throw it to the north if you want another to replace it soon.

27. Gego mawinzoken anami弾giizhigag. Ginebig ga-waabamaa.
27. Don稚 pick berries on Sundays or you will meet a snake.

28. Gego nisaaken bapakine. Da-bigiiwe ji-miijid gi-gigishkiganan maawach gaa-zaagitooyin.
28. Don稚 kill a cricket or grasshopper or it will come back and eat your best clothes.

29. Gego gwiishkoshidangen waawaateg. Da-niisishkaawag. Jiibayag igi.
29. Don稚 whistle at the northern lights or they will come down and get you. (They are spirits of people who passed away long ago.)

30. Gego niibaa-bagizoken. Odemiskwaanisee gi-ga-wiipemig.
30. Don稚 swim at night or a water beetle will sleep with you.

31. Giishpin ginagizideyin, ningoji iinzan gi-ga-izhaa.
31. If your feet are itchy, it means that you池e going on a trip.

32. Giishpin jiichiibaabiyin, awiya gaa-gii-waabamaasiwad ginwesh gi-ga-waabamaa.
32. If your eye twitches, you値l see someone you haven稚 seen for a while.

33. Binesiikaag, giba誕n waasechiganan, ashi dash asemaa.
33. In a thunderstorm, close the windows and offer tobacco.

34. Gego aazhigijishimaaken miskwaadesi.
34. Don稚 turn over a turtle on its back.

35. Gego maanenimaaken awensiwag. Gego bichikwane弾誕aken. Gi-ga-onjine.
35. Don稚 make fun of animals or pets [don稚 dress them up] or else, "gi-ga-onjine." Your misdeed will come back to you as punishment.

36. Gego bagizoken binesiikaag. Mikinaak gi-ga-googamig.
36. Don稚 swim during a thunder storm. A snapping turtle might pull you under water.

37. Giishpin biidamawadwaa miinan gichi-ayaag, ginesh gi-ga-bimaadiz.
37. When you bring berries to Elders, they値l bless you with long life.

38. Gego babaakobiiwebinaaken asiniig. Da-gichi-izhiweban.
38. Don稚 throw rocks into the water. A storm will result.

39. Gego biinjidakokiiken awiya gaa-gii-izhi-dakokiid. Da-maanzhise.
39. Don稚 step in someone痴 footsteps or you will bring them trouble.

40. Gego naazibiing izhikweshinoken agwajiing nibaayin.
40. When camping, don稚 sleep with your head towards the water.

41. Dasing ge-tetesibiigishing nabagaabikisin ogijibiig, amii minik ge-dashiwaad gi-niijaanisag.
41. The number of times you skip a flat pebble over still water is how many children you will have.

42. Giishpin waabamad nanepaajinikesi, gi-ga-maanzhise.
42. If you see a mole [a mouse-like mammal], it is bad news.

43. Giishpin noondawad waagosh migined, gi-ga-maanzhise.
43. If you hear a fox barking, it痴 bad news.

44. Gego waasechiganing onji-zaagidaandaweken. Jiibay eta iwe izhise.
44. Don稚 climb through your house window; only corpses are brought out like that.

45. Gego waakaa段ganikaan ozhitooken biindig.
45. Don稚 make a playhouse inside your home.

46. Gego bitaanikwaaneken akik. Amii iwe ge-nepiji-iniginiyin.
46. Don稚 put on a kettle or pan as a hat or you値l stay that small.

47. Giishpin aamoo jiisog, zhigidan aniibiish, amii dash agonan imaa.
47. If you get stung by a bee, pee on a leaf and place that on your sting for relief.

48. Majitewebinaman okanan miigwanag ishkodeng, da-biizhaa jiibay.
49. Don稚 throw bones or feathers in a fire or you値l invite evil spirits or "jiibayag."

49. Gego inaabiken waabamoning dibikag. Jiibay gi-ga-waabamaa.
48. Don稚 look into a mirror at night. You might see a "Jiibay" (skeletons or ghosts).

50. Giishpin andawenimad giday ji-zaagi段g, biinji-zikwaazh odooning "gidinawemin" dash izhi. Gaawiikaa dash da-maajiibatoosii.
50. If you want your pet dog to be faithful to you, spit into its open mouth and say "gidinawemin." From then on, he値l be yours.

51. Ozaam gimiwang ginwesh andawendaman dash ji-zaagaateg, gagwejim gwiiwizens ji-zaaga誕ng bangii zaagaateg, ji-jaangideyetawaad giizisoon michidiy "Baasan ni-mashkimod" dash ji-inaad giizisoon.
51. When it痴 been raining for days, have a little boy go outside somewhere where he can be alone during a brief sunny interlude. He値l say to the peeping sun, "Baasan ni-mashkimod" [Dry my bag] and the weather will turn sunny.

52. Gego odaminwaageken ishkode. Gi-ga-zhingigwaam dibikag.

 

E-Gii-Ganawaabandamaang Gaa-izhibii段geyaang
Comparing Our Orthographies

Jibwaa-naawakweg gii-maajii-ozhibii段gewag anishinaabeg. Gaa-niigaanishkang daso-okobiwin, o-gii-anoonaa ini ji-anishinaabebii段genid owe ikidowin omaa gaa-zhaaganaashiibii段gaadeg. Amii dash gichi-mazina段iginong, gaa-izhi-ozhibii誕mowaad wiinawaa ge-izhibii段gewaapan. Amii dash ono aanind gaa-izhibii段gewaad.
The delegates began the serious part of the conference workshop: writing in their orthographies. In this workshop, the facilitator wanted the group to translate sentences which contain all the sounds that we share, regardless of dialect or region. The facilitator wrote these sentences at the top of a long 30- to 40-foot newsprint blank paper.
The delegates from each region translated underneath each word or phrase, each person writing with a different coloured marker. Each wrote almost exactly the same translation, but with a different orthography as shown below.

Yesterday I arrived in the big city. It was raining. I saw five women.
(Sample sentences are from various communities)

(Manitoba / Minnesota)
Bijiinaago nin-gii-dagoshin gichi-oodenaang. Gimiwan. Nin-gii-waabamaag naanan ikwewag.

(Sandy Bay, Manitoba)
Pichn疚o nik takoshin kichi tanank. Kimiwan. Nik w疳ahm疣k n疣an ikwawak.

(Minnesota)
Pechenako ketagoshen kechi otanag. Ge me wun. Kewapamak nanon ekwawak.
Pitchn疊o nig tagoshin kitci den疊. Gimiwan. Nig w畸am疚 n疣an ikwewak.
Bjiinaago ngiidagoshin gchi oodinaang. Gamiwan. Ngii waabamaag naanan ikwewag.
Pitchinako nkitakoshin kitchi odanank. Kemewan. Nki wapamak nanan ikwewak.
Pitchenago nke takoshin kichi odenang. Kimiwan. Nke wapamak nanan ekwewak.
Bicn稟o ng takosin kici ten穗k. Kimiwan. Ng w稈am稾 n穗an ikwewak.

Amii dash gaa-inendamowaad anishinaabeg naasaab e-izhigiizhwewaad, bebakaan dash izhibii段gewag. Gii-minwendamoog e-gikendamowaad bezhigwan inwewin iwe anishinaabemowin. Aaniin dash ge-izhichigeying naasaab ji-izhibii段geying?
This exercise showed many delegates that they speak the same language but have many ways of spelling it. It elicited many favourable responses towards writing the same way, or at least consistently within each system.

Gii-ishkwaa-naawakweg, o-gii-maajii-dazhindaanaawaa aaniin ge-izhichigeng bezhig ji-gagwe-odaapinigaadeg ozhibii段gewin. Bezhig o-gii-ozhibii段ge誕awaan, bezhig dash o-gii-inwaanaawaan ji-dibaajimonid.
As a result of this exercise, after lunch, each facilitator re-opened the discussion on choosing one orthography. Each group had one person recording the concluding remarks and recommendations, and another acted as spokesperson.

 

Ishkwaach E-Giizhigag: August 10 (Saturday), 1996
Third Day: Saturday, 10 August 1996

Ontario Room gii-izhi-maamawiinowag e-gizhebaawagag. Gii-zhaangachinoon aaniish okobiwinan. Gii-zhaangachiwag dash gaa-gii-niibawiwaad e-gii-daajimowaad aaniin gaa-ikidonid gaa-inendaminid gaye gaa-gii-wiidabimaawaad. Omaa dash ozhibii段gaadewan:
The delegates met as a plenary group in the Ontario Room. All morning, the chairperson introduced each group痴 spokesperson who presented the choice of orthography and recommendations. The lunch break occurred between the third and fourth speaker. The presentations continued after lunch.
The plenary presentations are described below.

 

Gaa-gii-ikidowaad ji-izhichigeng
Report and Recommendations From Each Workshop

1. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Brian Cochrane, Giiwedinong Ontario
Gaa-ikidod:

  • Niigaan ge-bi-ayaawaad gi-daa-mikwenimaanaanig.
  • Niizhoobii段gewin daa-oko-odaapinigaade.
  • "H" gaa-inweg onizhishin.
  • Anishinaabe Ozhibii段gewin daa-izhinikaade owe.
  • Gwaashkwebijiganibii段gewin maawiin aapiji onizhishinodog.
    1. Facilitator: Brian Cochrane, Northern Ontario
    Summary:
  • The focus is for the "future generations."
  • Consensus is for the "Double Vowel System"
  • "hh" nasal vowel sound is essential
  • Anishnaabe Ozhibii段gewin is the title given.
  • Syllabic System is probably the "superior" system.

     

    2. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Lois Thomas, Saskatchewan
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Gaawiin bezhig ozhibii段gewin nin-gii-oko-odaapinaziimin.
  • Niizh dino ozhibii段gewinan nin-gii-odaapinaabin Niizhoobii段gewin iwe dash gaye Jakibii段gewin.
    Virginia Henry gii-anishinaabe-nagamo.

    2. Facilitator: Lois Thomas, Saskatchewan
    Summary:
  • They did not reach consensus.
  • They chose two orthographies the Double Vowel and the Macron systems.
    Virginia Henry sang a song in Anishinaabemowin.

     

    3. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Rene Barker, Manitoba
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Gegaa nin-gii-oko-odaapinaamin Niizhoobii段gewin, bezhig eta gaawiin gii-ikido.
    3. Facilitator: Rene Barker, Manitoba
    Summary:
  • The group, except for one person, chose the Double Vowel System.

    Zhigwa owe gaye gii-inendamoog:
    Milles Lacs, Minnesota gaa-onjiiwaad ominwendaanaawaa Niizhoobii段gewin e-aabajitoowaad, aazha aaniish o-gii-onji-aabajitoonaawaa.

    The delegates from Milles Lacs, Minnesota would stay with the double Vowel system that they have adopted there already.

    Niizhoobii段gewin izhi-gikino誕maagewag imaa Lakehead University. Igi gaye anishinaabeg ningaabii誕nong gaa-ayaawaad Niizhoobii段gewag.
    Lakehead Univestity teaches the Douvle Vowel system, western dialect as well as central.

    Niizhoobii段gewin ni-gii-gikino誕maagoo amii dash geniin iwe ge-gikino誕maageyaan. Giishpin igooyaan ji-aanjibii段geyaan, amii ji-gagwe-gikendamaan miinawaa bakaan ozhibii段gewin, ji-aanjibii誕maanan gaa-aabajitoowaanan noongom.
    I learned the Double Vowel system and that痴 how I teach. If I have to switch to another system, I have to re-learn and redo a lot of my resources.

    Igi wedi gaa-onjiiyaan nin-gii-igoog ji-odaapinamaan ge-izhibii段geyaan.
    The community left it up to me to decide what system I wanted to use.

    Aazha wiin Zaagiing Fort Alex Manitoba niizhoobii段gewag.
    Fort Alex, Manitoba, is already using the Double Vowel system.

    Ni-niizhoobii段ge, zhaagooch dash jakibii段gan gaye nindaabajitoon. Nin-ga-wiindamawaag godag gikino誕maageg, nin-ga-gikino誕mawaag niizhoobii段gewin giiweyaan. N-gii-bi-giimii omaa wii-biizhaayaan.
    I took the Double Vowel system but I use the other system, Macron, as well. I値l let other teachers know and teach them about the Double Vowel system as soon as I return. Ngii-bigiimii omaa wii-biizhaayaan. (I came here secretly)

    Gikino誕maadiiwigamigong odaabajitoonaawaan daataangiweba段ganan gaa-gwaashkwebijiganibii段gaadegin. Zhaagooch dash gikino誕mawaaganag gikino誕mawaawag ji-anishinaabebii段gewaad.
    At school they have typewriters that write syllabics, but students still have to learn the writing system.

    Gaa-zhaaganaashiimowaad wiin zhaagooch nisidotaadiwag aaniindi go eyaawaad, aanawi bebakaan bangii inwewaad gii-zhaaganaashiimowaad.
    The idea, thinking of English accents vary from different areas, they can read the newspaper and understand.

    Gi-gikendaamin ezhi-bakaan izhibii段gaadeg P zhigwa B.
    We know differences between p痴 and b痴, whatever is in their area.

    Ni-minwendaan niin Niizhoobii段gewin gii-oshkaadiziyaan, ngoji go 18, 19 gii-daso- bibooneyaan. Ganage abinoonjiiyag gaa-agaashiiwiwaad o-da-zanagendaanaawaa niizhwayag izhi-gikino誕mawindwaa enwenig ozhibii段gewin zhaaganaashiimowin bakaan izhibii段gaade, anishinaabemowin dash gaye bakaan.
    I liked the Double Vowel system when I was younger, about 18 or 19. I wonder if the very young children get confused at the spelling of sounds. that is feet, "ee" sound in Anishinaabemowin is represented by "ii".

    Ganage da-zanagendamoog abinoonjiiyag?
    Would it be too hard for the young children?

    Giishpin wii-mikamang bezhig naasaab izhibii段gewin, gi-ga-gagwe-mikaamin aaniin ge-izhibii誕mang gakina gaa-initaagwakin inwewinan.
    If we池e going to come up with one common writing system, we池e going to have to all agree on what to use with what sound.

    Aazha wiin Manitoba Association for Native Languages niizhoobii段gewag.
    The Manitoba Association for Native Languages uses the Double Vowel system.

     

    4. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Agnes PeeAce, Saskatchewan
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Gikino誕maadiiwigamigong gaye endaaying daa-izhi-gikino誕maagem anishinaa-bemowin.
  • Gi-daa-meshkwadoonamaadimin ge-aabajitooying gikino誕maageying, mazina段-ganan, dibaajimowinan.
  • Ni-gii-oko-odaapinaamin Niizhoobii段gewin. Wegonen dash? Nawach da-wendan ji-anamichigaadeg anishinaabemowin. Nawach niibiwa mazina段ganan da-ondinigaadewan ji-aabajichigaadegin gikino誕maageng. Nawach da-wendagidewan ji-ozhichigaadegin mazina段ganan nawach niibiwa ozhichigaadegin miziwe gaye izhinizha段gaadegin.
  • Gwaashkwebijiganibii段gan ningoding gaye daa-aabajichigaade bizaanigo.
    Geyaabi gi-daa-maamawibimin ji-dazhindamang inwewinin gaye izhitwaawin.

    4. Facilitator: Agnes PeeAce, Trent Room
    Summary:
  • Anishinaabemowin needs to be taught in the home and school.
  • Benefit of shared writing system includes resources, literature, curriculum.
  • We reached a consensus on the "Double Vowel System."
    Why? Reading will be easier. More materials will be available. Curriculum.
    Publishing cost will be lower if more books could be printed and distributed.
  • Syllabics will be considered as an "alternate system."
    More conferences need to be held for the nurturing of our language and culture.

     

    5. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Roger Roulette, Manitoba
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Niizhoobii段gewin daa-odaapinigaade wiin ogowe gii-ikidowag, aaniish amii iwe maawach gaa-aabajichigaadeg omaa Canada akiing gaye wedi Gichi-mookomaan-akiing.
    5. Facilitator: Roger Roulette, Manitoba
    Summary:
  • This group announced that the Double Vowel system should be the Anishinaabemowin orthography because it is the system of writing that the Anishinaabeg use on both sides of the international boundary.

    Gaa-inendamowaad:
    The common ground: issues of agreement.

    1. Gichi-inendaagwan ozhibii段gewin Daa-onizhishin endaawaad ji-dazhi-gagwe-nitaa- anishinaabemowaapan anishinaabensag. Amii aaniish iwe maawach ge-izhi- minosegiban, gaawiin dash gakina awiya o-daa-gashkitoosiin iwe ji-doodang. Ozhibii段gewin dash daa-minose ji-aabadag ndawaa, gagwe-nitaa-anishinaabemong.
    1. Writing is important. Anishinaabemowin is an oral language best learned at home. Immersion learning is not an option for most language learners. Writing is a critical tool.

    2. Naasaab izhi-ozhibii段geng gichi-inendaagwan Daa-onizhishin naasaab izhibii段gaadenig anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕mawindwaa gikino誕mawaaganag. O-zanagendaanaawaa gii-gikino誕mawindwaa baatiinwayag dash gii-izhibii段gaadeg anishinaabemowin. Nawach gaye daa-wendanini gikino誕maageng ji-maameshkwadoonamaadiwaad ge-aabajitoowaad gikino誕maagewaad. Da-maamiinidiwag gaye oshki-inendamowinan. Daa-gikino誕maadiwag gikino誕maageg owe doodamowaad. Gaawiin memwaach ji-oshki-maajitoowaad gegoon bizhishig, daabishkoo noongom gaa-doodamowaad. Nawach da-wendan ji-ganawaabanjigaadeg aaniin ezhising anishinaabemowin, naasaab izhibii段gaadeg.
    2. Writing the same way is important. Consistency is necessary for students who have different language teachers. Anishinaabemowin language teachers can better share ideas and material. Anishinaabemowin language teachers can learn from each other. They don稚 have to re-invent the wheel. It will be easier to study dialect differences and grammar, as well as Anishinaabemowin morphology and etymology.

    3. Odaapinigaadeg ge-izhibii段gewaad gakina anishinaabeg Ozaam wiin mayaginaagwanoon gwaashkwebijiganibii段ganan, gaye jakibii段ganan ji-wenji-gikendamowaapan gaa-oshki-gikino誕mawindwaa anishinaabemowin. Gaawiin gaye minosesinoon wiinawaa go gaa-onwaadamowaad anishinaabebii段gewin. Iwe dash niizhoobii段gewin maawach aabajichigaade gichi-gikendaasowigamigong. Wendam e-gikino誕maageng iwe, amii dash iwe niinawind enendamaang ji-oko-odaapinigaadegiban gakina anishinaabeg ji-izhibii段gewaad. Gii-bi-gitaabadan gaye gwashkwebijiganibii段gan. Minosewan ini niizh ozhibii段gewinan e-ozhibii段gaadeg anishinaabemowin.
    3. Picking an orthography for all Ojibwe people. Syllabics and diacritics are new symbols that can confuse second-language learners. Folk phonetics are inconsistent and confusing, especially on vowel length. The double vowel system is most commonly taught at universities. It is the most commonly published. It is easiest to teach and learn and is our first choice for the international Anishinaabemowin orthography. Syllabics also holds an important place in our linguistic and cultural heritage. Both systems reflect actual Anishinaabemowin sounds.

    4. Ekidowaang Niizhoobii段gan o-da-aabajitoonaawaa gakina anishinaabeg ozhibii誕mowaad odinwewiniwaa. Zhaagooch dash ni-nisidawinaamin e-gii-bi-gichi- inendamowaad anishinaabeg gwaashkwebijiganibii段gan.
    4. Resolution: The double vowel writing system is the the new international Anishinaabemowin Orthography. However, we also recognise the value and importance of syllabics as part of our linguistic and cultural heritage.

     

    6. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Laura James, Giiwedinong Ontario
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • O-gii-odaapinaanaawaa niizhoobii段gan, aanawi e-gii-dagwiiwaad imaa gaa-jakibii段gewaad.
    O-gii-ozhibii誕anaawaa iwe gaa-ikidowaad gichi-mazina段iginong.

    6. Facilitator: Laura James, Northern Ontario
    Summary:
  • This group chose the Double Vowel system over the Macron, even though there were Macron-users with them. They proclaimed this choice with a huge banner they displayed to the rest of the conference.

    1. Ge-izhi-maajitaaying Odaapinamang owe izhibii段gewin, gi-ga-maajii-ozhitamawaanaanig, mashkawitamawaanaanig, onizhishitamawaanaanig igi ge-ani-bimaadiziwaad.
    1. Foundation This choice of one system will build, strengthen, and beautify our nation for the future generations.

    2. Ganawendamang Naasaab izhibii段geying gi-ga-gashkitoomin ji-nepiji-ganawendamang gidanishinaabemowininaan.
    2. Preservation A common writing system will preserve our language indefinitely.

    3. Maameshkwadoonamaadiying Gikino誕maage-mazina段ganan Gikino誕maageg oda-gashkitoonaawaa ji-maameshkwadoonamaadiwaad ge-aabajitoowaad mazina段ganan gikino誕maagewaad, apiich wiin noongom gii-bezhigoo- anokiiwaad. Da-onji-gaganoonindiwag gaye.
    3. Sharing Teacher痴 Manuals Teachers can share, rather than work in isolation. It will unify the teachers.

    4. Ji-mashkawichigaadeg gaa-giizhichigaad Gi-daa-aaniketoomin aazha gaa-giizhichigaadegin mazina段ganan. Nawach gi-ga-ani-gikendaamin gidizhigiizhwewininaan giishpin waabandamang ezhibii段gewaad bangii bakaan gaa-inwewaad anishinaabeg, bakaan gaa-onjiiwaad.
    4. Building on Existing Materials It would complement and strengthen existing material. We will be able to expand our vocabulary by being exposed to other dialects of our language. It will be less expensive to modify materials rather than writing new ones.

    5. Nawach gichi-inenjigaadeg gidizhigiizhwewininaan Nawach da-gichi-inenjigaade gidizhigiizhwewininaan giishpin naasaab izhibii段geying. Baatiinowag aaniish Anishinaabeg gaa-gichi-inendazigwaa odinwewiniwaa. Amii dash imaa inwewining ezhi-ani-aanike-gino誕maageng anishinaabe-izhitwaawin. Giishpin ayaasiwang gidinwewininaan, gaawiin gi-ga-ayaasiimin gidizhitwaawininaan, amii ge-izhi-zhaaganaashiiwaadiziying.
    5. Legitimising the language Our language will be recognised as important because there are many Anishinaabeg that do not see our language as important to learn. The language is a transmitter of culture. (No language no culture. We become Zhaaganaashag, Mooniyaag, etc.)

    6. Da-onji-minosewag Gaa-anishinaabemowaad Odanokiig
    6. Beneficial for Professionals Medical Interpreters, Law Enforcement, Hospitality area.

    Gi-daa-gagwe-bezhigotoomin ozhibii段gewin, ji-onji-wenjisenig gaa-aanakanootamaagewaad. Gi-niijaanisinaanig o-da-aabajitoonaawaa. Amii igiwe ge-mikwenimangwaaban, gaawiin giinawind eta ge-izhi-minoseying.
    We need a common writing system for our children. We must look at the "big picture" and not just at ourselves. It is hard to learn a new way. Nothing good ever comes easy.

    Ajina gii-maajaa gaa-niigaaniitang. Pauline Decontie Quebec gaa-onjiid o-gii-gagwe-jimaan ji-naabishkaagod ajina. Lena White iinzan gii-giigido e-gii-dazhindang aaniin epiichi-baatiinwewaanagiziwaad gaa-inwewaad anishinaabeg, ge-izhi-zanagakiban dash ji-mikigaadeg bezhig ozhibii段gan ge-aabajitoowaapan anishinaabeg.
    At this time, Pat had to vacate the chair for one hour to cash some conference cheques. She designated Pauline Decontie of Quebec (Steering Committee Member) to chair for her and to introduce the remaining presenters.
    Lena White, Steering Committee Member, got up to talk about the diversity of dialects represented at the conference and how that would pose some problems in finding a common spelling system for the Anishinaabeg.

    Pauline Decontie dash iinzan o-gii-dazhindaan aaniin ge-apiichi-zanagakiban ji-mikigaadeg bezhig ozhibii段gewin aazha deminik e-niizhigin ozhibii段gewinan e-aabajichigaadegin. Bezhig niizhoobii段gewin bezhig dash jakibii段gewin.
    Pauline Decontie, acting Chair and Steering Committee Member, then talked at length about the difficulty of striving for one common writing system since there were already two established orthographies. The west has one similar to Quebec痴 orthography, and then there is the Double Vowel system.

    Leonard Kichimoniya Regina gaa-onjiid gii-ikido aazha wiinawaa wedi Saskatchewan gaa-onjiiwaad e-aabajitoowaad gaa-izhibii段gewaad, gaawiin dash e-wii-aanjitoosigwaa.
    Leonard Kichimoniya of Regina, Saskatchewan, agreed that Saskatchewan has its own orthography and should continue to use it and not change.

    Roger Roulette bezhig gaa-wiiji段wed gaye gaa-gikino誕maaged odizhigiizhwewin gii-ikido owe. "bezhig gegoon omaa gaa-gii-onji-biizhaaying, ji-gagwe-mikamang bezhig ozhibii段gewin. Gaawiin giinawind gaa-onji-izhichigeying. Ge-ani-ayaawaad osha gi-daa- mikwenimaanaanig. Aanawi giinawind ositaawendamang aanjibii段geying, gi-daa-mikwenimaanaanig ge-ani-ayaawaad anishinaabeg ge-aabajitoowaad iwe ozhibii段gewin ge-ani-akiiwang. Gi-daa-gagwe-wiijitoomin osha ji-minoseg gidizhigiizhwewininaan." Margaret Houle Manitoba gaa-onjiid, gewiin iwe gii-inendam gaa-gii-ikido ini.
    Gaa-ishkwaa-gaagiigidong miinawaa gii-giigidowag ogowe:

    Roger Roulette, a Facilitator and a Manitoba Language Teacher, reminded the conference that they were there for the purpose of finding one common writing system for the people. "It is not the fact that we can稚 learn a new system ourselves but we must do it for the next generations. It is for their benefit that we must do this. Not as much as been written in macron orthographies. We should be trying to assist this process, not hindering it."
    Margaret Houle, a Manitoba Elder, agreed with Roger Roulette. After this hour-long interlude of impromptu speeches, Pauline Decontie then introduced the next presenters:

     

    7. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Stella Kichi-moniya, Saskatchewan
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Amii wiinawaa ogowe gaa-ikidowaad niizhin ozhibii段gewinan ji-aabadakin: Niizhoobii段gewin gaye iwe jakibii段gewin.
    7. Facilitator: Stella Kichi-moniyas, Saskatchewan
    Summary:
  • This group decided that they would stay with the two main systems: Double Vowel and the Macron.

     

    8. Gaa-wiiji'iwed: Pauline Decontie, Quebec
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Niizhoobii段gan wiin ogowe o-gii-odaapinaanaawaa.
    Daa-onizhishin bezhig dino ozhibii段gewin ji-aabajitoowaapan igiwe gaa-gikino誕mawindwaa anishinaabemowin.
    Niizhoobii段gewin daa-minose ji-aabajitoowaapan gaa-gikino誕maagewaad anishinaabemowin. Wiinge wendan e-aabajichigaadeg.
    Jakibii段gewin wendan ji-aabadag aaniish nawach dakwaawan ikidowinan, nawach dash owendendaanaawaadog abinoonjiiyag ji-ozhibii誕mowaad.

    8. Facilitator: Pauline Decontie, Quebec
    Summary:
  • This group chose the Double Vowel system.
    One form of orthography for all, would benefit in teaching the language to first-time speakers of Anishinaabemowin.
    The Double Vowel system is used by most language instructors. It痴 easy to learn and write.
    The Macron is easier to learn because the words are not as long for children to write.

     

    9. Gaa-wiiji段wed: Pat Ningewance, Giiwedinong Ontario
    Gaa-ikidod:

  • Gaawiin bezhig ozhibii段gewin gii-odaapinigaadesinoon. Minji-niizh niizhoobii段-gewin gaye iwe jakibii段gewin gii-inendamoog ji-aabajichigaadegin. Baamaa ningoding bezhig da-odaapinigaade maawiin iwe niizhoobii段gewin. Noongom dash wiin igo gaa-izhi-niizhigin daa-aabadanoon.
    9. Facilitator: Pat Ningewance, Northern Ontario
    Summary:
  • This group did not choose one system over the other. They stayed with two orthographies the macron and double vowel. They did say that in time, one system will be used more than the other. This will be the double vowel system.

     

    Gaa-ikidong ji-doodamong
    Comments

    Amii gaa-ikidong ji-doodamong.
    The following list of comments came from workshop discussions, answering the question: How would one common orthography benefit the language?

    Da-minose gikino誕mawind gaa-wii-nitaa-anishinaabemod. Bizaanigo da-nisidotaagwanoon aadisookewinan gaye dibaajimowinan bakaan inwewining izhi-dibaadodegin.
    It would benefit in teaching the language to first-time speakers; legends and stories could be understood even when in a different dialect.

    Niizhoobii段gewin odaabajitoonaawaa gegaa gakina gaa-gikino誕maagewaad. Da-zanagan ji-aanjitoowaapan iwe, ewendag ji-niizhoobii段geng.
    Roman orthography (double vowel) is used by most language instructors. It would be hard to change. It is easy to learn and write in the double vowel system.

    Nawach waawaasa noongom ayizhaawaag anishinaabeg, ani-aanjise gaye gaa-aabajichigaadeg noongom. Amii dash ge-onji-minosegiban bezhig dino ozhibii段gewin ji-aabadag ji-ozhichigaadegin mazina段ganan ge-aabadakin gikino誕maageng.
    A common orthography would be beneficial because people are travelling and technology is changing. A single orthography would be easier in developing new teaching materials.

    Jakibii段gewin wendan aaniish gaawiin ginwaabiigisizinoonan ikidowinan abinoonjiiyag ge-ozhibii誕mowaad.
    The other form of orthography (macron) is easier to learn because the words are not as long for children to write.

    Maawach minose ji-gikino誕mawind awiya ji-anishinaabemod noondang gaa-inwenig anishinaabemowin.


    The oral language is the best way to teach any language. People need to hear the sounds of the dialect spoken.


    The written form, when used too much, loses its usefulness and a student misses the meaning, because too much is concentrated on writing.

    Wii-gichiwinigaadeg anishinaabemowin, gi-daa-ozhibii誕amin.
    The language needs to be preserved and the written form is the way to do it.

    Gi-daa-ozhitoomin mazina段ganan ge-izhi-niibidebii段gaadegin ikidowan. Naasaab dash izhibii段geying gakina, gi-ga-onji-gitaabajitoom nawach.
    A dictionary would benefit in teaching the language; a common form of writing would benefit in teaching the written form.

    Da-onji-zoongan gidizhigiizhwewininaan naasaab izhibii段geying.
    One form of orthography would strengthen the language.

    Ozhibii誕mang anishinaabemowin gi-ga-onji-gashkitoomin ji-gichiwinamang, aaniish gaawiin wii-anishinaabemosiiwag oshkaadiziig, o-daa-anamitoonaawaa dash.
    It痴 important to preserve the language through the writing system because young people do not want to speak in their own language.

    Mewinzha gii-michi-anishinaabemowag anishinaabeg.
    A long time ago, language was taught orally.

    Da-minose bezhigwayag izhi-anishinaabebii段geng.
    One form of writing would help in preserving the language and it would make our language stronger.

    Nawach daa-wendagidewan ozhichigaadegin mazina段ganan naasaab izhibii段geng.
    A single form of orthography would cut the costs of publishing teaching materials.

    Naasaab gi-daa-izhi-anishinaabebii段gemin.
    Consistency within any orthography is a must.

    Zhaagooch gaawiin naasaab izhibii段gesiim aaniin igo izhi-aabajichigaadegin ini izhibii段gewinan. Baatiinowag gaa-maanzhibii段gewaad gii-anishinaabebii段gewaad, gaawiin dash onisidotanziinaawaa e-maanzhibii段gewaad.
    There is an unadmitted inconsistency in all the orthographies. No one wants to admit that they池e poor spellers. "It痴 my dialect." "It痴 the way I learned to spell and it痴 worked for me, so why should I change it?"

    Giishpin wii-anishinaabebii段geying, gi-daa-inaanaanig gakina gaa-gikino誕maagewaad anishinaabemowin, gwayag ji-gagwe-anishinaabebii段gewaad. Aaniin igo waa-aabajitoowaad izhibii段gewin jakibii段gewin gemaa niizhobii段gewin. Ningoding waniikewag ji-jakibii段gewaad, gemaa ji-niizhoobii段gewaad. Aaniish geyaabi gi-mayagendaamin e-ozhibii誕mang gidizhigiizhwewininaan. Noomaye gaa-majii-anishinaabebii段geying. Igi nitam gaa-gii- anishinaabebii段gewaad anami弾wininiwag, gaye gaa-gichi-gikendaasowaad, gaawiin gewiinawaa gii-gikendaziiwag aaniin ge-izhibii段gewaad. Amii gaa-onji-bebakaanadakin anishinaabebii段gewinan. Noongom wiin gikino誕maadiiwigamigong oodenaang bagosenimaawag gikino誕maageg ji-nitaawibii段gewaad giishpin wii-gikino誕maagewaad. Amii dash gegiinawind ge-izhi-bagosenimangwaaban anishinaabemowin gaa-gikino誕maagewaad.
    If we are now going to write in our languages, we must stress that all language teachers take sufficient training in Anishinaabemowin language literacy. Those who are still learning to write in either the macron or double vowel system are inconsistent in their spelling. They forget to mark their long vowels or cannot decide whether a consonant is aspirated or not. This inconsistency is because we as a people are still new to literacy. We have only begun recently to write in our languages. The first to write our languages, the missionaries and later, the linguists, cannot themselves decide which orthography to use. In mainstream schools, it痴 taken for granted that elementary school teachers be excellent spellers, as well as being fluent in the teaching language.

    Gi-daa-ozhitoomin izhichigewin okobiwin ge-abiwaapan gaa-gikendaasowaad, gaa-nagajitoowaad gaye anishinaabebii段gewin. Amii dash igi ge-ganawaabandamowaapan gaa-anishinaabebii段gaadegin mazina段ganan ge-ozhichigaadegin, gwayag ji-izhibii段gaadegin ini mazina段ganan. Miziwe gaye bi-onjiiwaad, bebakaan inwewaad bangii, bizaanigo daa-ikidowag aaniin wiinawaa ezhigiizhwewaad, bangii ji-aanijibii段gaadegin ini mazina段ganan nawach niibiwa anishinaabeg ji-nisidotamowaapan, bakaan aaniish gakina gidizhigiizhwemin bangii.
    An Anishinaabemowin Commission or authority could edit our new language books. We have had linguists and a few good Anishinaabemowin writers who can edit. If there could be an international commission that has speakers from a larger area, they could make editorial changes that could make some books have a wider appeal or be of more universal use. For instance, they could suggest changes in vocabulary so that other dialects could understand. This work would not detract from the language because these chosen words exist already in the languages. This situation was the case when the steering committee chose a name for the conference. After looking at other words that could have expressed the concept well enough in their dialects, the one phrase that everyone could agree upon was NAASAAB IZHI-ANISHINAA-BEBII棚GENG. An Anishinaabemowin Commission could also do such a job.

     

    Ge-izhi-minoseg, ge-izhi-maanzhiseg izhibii段gewinan
    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Orthography System

    NIIZHOOBII棚GEWIN
    Double vowel

    Ge-onji-minosegiban
    nawach wendan gii-ozhibii段gaadeg gaa-daataangiweba段gaadeg dash gii-aabadag.
    godag izhigiizhwewinan akiing gaa-aabadakin oginwaabiigisidoonaawaan odikidowiniwaan. Zhaagooch minose.
    nawach wendan ji-nisidawinigaadeg aaniin enweg gii-niizhoobii段gaadeg.

    Advantages
    It is easier to type out on a computer because you don稚 have to pause each time to lengthen the vowels
    German and many other languages of the world have long words and that doesn稚 make them harder to learn.

    Ge-onji-maanzhisegiban
    Ginwaabiigisinoon ikidowinan gii-ozhibii段gaadegin.
    ozaam niibiwa mazina段igin aabadan, niibiwa dash daa-inaginde ozhibii段gaadeg.

    Disadvantages
    It is easier to associate a double vowel with a "longer" sound than a short vowel.
    It makes words too long to write out. (They take up too much room on the page.) It takes more paper (too expensive).

     

    JAKIBII棚GEWIN
    Macron

    Ge-onjii-minosegiban
    nawach dakwaabiigisinoon ikidowinan

    Advantages
    It makes words shorter than Double Vowel.

    Ge-onjii-maanzhisegiban
    niiskinaagwan ozhibii段gan miziwe jakibii段ganensan gii-ozhibii段gaadegin.
    ningoding waniikem ji-jakibii段geng.
    gaawiin gakina gaa-daataangiweba段gaadegin odaabajitoosiinaawaan ini ozhibii段ganensan gaa-aabadakin gii-jakibii段geng.

    Disadvantages
    The page looks too messy with all those slash marks, and "hats" on the vowels.
    Sometimes people forget to mark the long vowels.
    Not all computers have macron symbols.

     

    WIINAWAA GO GAA-IZHIBII棚GEWAAD GAA-ANISHINAABEBII棚GEWAAD
    Folk phonetic system

    Ge-onji-minosegiban
    nawach daa-wendan ji-nisidawinigaadeg daabishkoo aaniish zhaaganaashiiwibii-iganing nindizhibii段ge ikidowag iwe gaa-aabajitoowaad.
    nawach wiiba o-da-anisidawinaanaawaa abinoonjiiyag, inendamoog.
    nawach o-daa-wendendaanaawaa igi gaa-gikino誕maagewaad ji-ozhibii誕mowaad.

    Advantages
    It is easier to understand because I知 writing the way it sounds in English
    The children will learn it faster.
    It痴 easier for teachers to learn.

    Ge-onji-maanzhisegiban
    zanagan naasaab ji-izhibii段geng. Ngoding baatiinwayag izhibii段gaade bezhig ikidowin aaniish gaawiin ogikendaziin aaniin mayaa ge-izhibii誕ng. Wiin aaniish igo odoozhitoon awe gaa-ozhibii段ged.

    Disadvantages
    The writing is inconsistent because the English orthography that it痴 based on is inconsistent. Words are not spelled the same from one page to the next.

    da-onaasewag gikino誕mawaaganag bizhishig bakaan izhibii段gaadenig ikidowin.
    Students will be confused and unable to learn when the spelling is inconsistent.

    Bebikish odizhisidoonaawaan ikidowinensan gaawiin aaniish ogikendaziinaawaan aaniin mayaa ezhising anishinabemowin daabishkoo owe nake e-izhibii段gewaad: "Ne-de-sha-o-de-nahng" "Nindizhaa oodenaang" gii-wii-izhibii段gewaad.
    Some folk phonetic writing is written by the syllable, sometimes hyphenated and sometimes not. This situation makes it uncertain for the student what constitutes a word, or part of a word. "Ne-de-sha-o-denagng" for "Nindizhaa oodenaang." (I go to town.)

    gaawiin daa-gashkichigaadesinoon ji-gikino誕maageng ezhising anishinaabemowin giishpin babakaan izhibii誕man anishinaabe-ikidowinan bizhishig. Gikendaman niizhwaaching dasingin inwewinan, gikendaman dash e-bakaaniseg ini gaa-dakotaagwakin inwewinan, amii ezhi-gashkitooyin gwayag ji-gikino誕maageyin ezhiseg anishinaabemowin.
    You cannot teach grammar systematically when you write long vowels differently all the time. The student must be shown consistent writing of vowels in order to learn some elementary grammar.

     

    Godag Ge-dazhinjigaadeg
    Other Business

    Gaa-niigaaniid miinawaa bakaan gegoo o-gii-maajii-dazhindaan. Aaniin ge-izhichigeng ishkwaaseg maawaji段diwin. Amii enisidawinigaadeg niizhoobii段gan maawach e-aabajitoowaad anishinaabeg omaa akiing. Igi eta Saskatchewan zhigwa Quebec gaa-onjiiwaad bakaan izhibii段gewag, e-jakibii段gewaad.
    The Chairperson used the second half of this last afternoon to open a dialogue on what should happen after this conference. It is recognised that the Double Vowel system is the one that most Anishinaabeg use for writing their language, but that Saskatchewan and Quebec teachers have also been using similar Macron orthographies. Now it is time to talk about what to do next.

    Ganage daa-ozhichigaade okobiwin ge-izhi-abiwaapan gichi-ayaag, gaa-nagajitoowaad gaye anishinaabemowin gaye igi gaa-aanakanootamaagewaad, ji-nagishkodaadiwaad aayaakaw ji-ozhitoowaad oshki-ikidowinan, oshki-izhinikaajiganan, ji-dazhindamowaad gaye ini ikidowinan, naasaab ji-gagwe-izhinikaajigeying, aaniindi gaa-onjiiying, aaniish ningoding gi-ga-memeshkwadoonamaadimin mazina段gan, amii dash naasaab ge-gii-onji-gagwe-izhinikaajigeying, ji-nisidawinamowaad anishinaabe暖ikino誕mawaaganag miziwe gaa-ayaawaad gidoozhibii段ganinaan. Gaawiin wiin igo eta igi gaa-onjiiying, ji-nisidawinamowaad gidoozhibii段ganinaan, igi gaye waasa gaa-onjiiwaad anishinaabeg.
    The Chairperson asked the delegates if there were a need to have a permanent international Commission of Elders, language specialists, and translators who could meet regularly to develop newly coined words and to standardise the existing modern terminology.

    Bezhigwan gaa-onjiiwaad dash gii-wiindabindiwag miinawaa. Gaawiin dash owe gii-minosesinoon ji-izhichigeng. Ozaam gii-onaase bezhigwendamowin. Wiinawaa igi Quebec gaa-onjiiwaad o-gii-wii-gichiwinaanaawaa odoozhibii段gewiniwaa. Gaye igi Sask-atchewan gaa-onjiiwaad, baamaa miinawaa nin-ga-dazhindaamin owe gii-ikidowag. Amii dash miinawaa gii-ani-dazhinjigaadeg iwe izhichigewin Anishinaabemowin Teg gaa-izhinikaadeg. Niizho-biboon aazha izhise apii gaa-gii-maajitoowaapan igi anishinaabeg Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario gaa-ayaawaad imaa Manidoominising gaye zhaawanong Ontario onjiiwag igi gaa-niigaaniitamowaad. Gaawiin wiin ningaabii誕nong gaye giiwedinong onjiisiiwag gaa-dagwiiwaad. Amii dash gaa-izhi-ishkwaaseg maawaji段diwin gii-ishkwaa-dazhindeg owe.
    The delegates left their workshop groups and went to their own Provincial and State groupings. This was not a good idea because it lost that initial community-wide character it had earlier. The Algonquin group decided to maintain its own writing system. The Saskatchewan group chose to meet again in Saskatchewan in order to make a decision.
    This process led to a discussion about the existence of Anishinaabemowin Teg, a new association formed two years ago in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Its Board of Directors are primarily from Manitoulin Island and the southern Ontario region. No western Ojibwe or Algonquins are on its Board of Directors yet. The meeting ended at 17:00.

     

    Gaa-inenjigaadeg
    Evaluation

    Gaawiin gii-miinaasiiwag anishinaabeg gegoon ji-mooshkinebii誕mowaad ji-ikidowaad aaniin gaa-inendamowaad gaa-izhisenig owe maawaji段diwin.
    There was no formal evaluation of this conference by its delegates. No questionnaires were handed out at the end.

     

    Ishkwaawaach Inendamowin
    Recommendation

    "Niizhoobii段gan" maawach niibiwa anishinaabeg gaa-aabajitoowaad imaa Canada akiing gaye imaa Gichi-mookomaanakiing. Giishpin dash wii-bimaajitooying gidanishinaabemowininaan gakina gi-daa-odaapinaamin ji-aabajitooying iwe izhibii段gewin., ji-maajii-ozhitooying mazina段ganan iwe ge-izhibii段gaadegin, miziwe dash ji-izhinizha誕maadiying ini mazina段ganan.
    The "Double Vowel" system is the writing system that is used most among the Anishinaabe people in Canada and the United States. In order for the language to survive, the people should adopt this one writing system and begin publishing in quantity and sharing materials with each other.

     

    Aanikewiindamaagewin A Ezhibii段geng
    Appendix "A": Orthographies by Province and State

    Ojibwe version:

  • English version:

     

    Aanikewiindamaagewin B Maawaji段ding
    Appendix "B": Conference Programme

    Nitam Gaa-giizhigag
    Day One

    
    

    9:00 am Anami誕awin
    9:30 am Boozhi段wewin
    11:00 am Gii-maajii-dazhinjigaade ozhibii段gewin
    12:00 Naawakwe-wiisiniwin
    1:00 pm Bapakewag ji-dazhindamowaad ozhibii段gewin. Oda-ganawaabandaanaawaan bebakaan gaa-onjiimagakin ozhibii段ganan.
    6:00 pm Onaagoshi-wiisiniwin
    7:30 Da-dibaajimowag anishinaabeg imaa Ontario Room. Dan zhigwa Dennis Jones da-niigaaniiwag, giiwedinong Ontario e-onjiiwaad.

    9:00 AM Prayer
    9:30 AM Welcome speeches
    11:00 AM Introduction to conference
    12:00 Noon LUNCH catered in Ontario Room
    1:00 PM Break out into groups. Study various regional orthographies submitted by delegates and collect samples.
    6:00 PM SUPPER catered at the Ontario Room
    7:30 PM Evening programme takes place in the Ontario Room. MCs were Dan and Dennis Jones of northwestern Ontario. Storytelling.

     

    Ani-waabang
    Day Two

    9:00 am Anami誕awin
    9:30 am Geyaabi gabe-giizhig o-da-dazhindaanaawaa ozhibii段gewin.
    12:00 Naawakwe-wiisiniwin
    1:00 PM Ozhibii段gewin ji-dazhinjigaadeg. Ji-maamawibiwaad ji-dazhinjigaadeg ozhibii段gewin. O-da-gagwe-ozhitoonaawaa bezhig ozhibii段gewin ge-aabadag.
    6:00 pm Onaagoshi-wiisiniwin
    7:30 pm Da-dadibaajimowag anishinaabeg.

    9:00 AM Prayer
    9:30 AM Continuation of group discussions led by facilitators all day.
    12:00 Noon LUNCH Groups work on one orthography. First Plenary Session. Each group submits an orthography that has been agreed to by all its members.
    6:00 PM SUPPER
    7:30 PM Evening programme: Stories and jokes in Anishinaabemowin.

     

    Ishkwaawaach Giigizhigag
    Day Three

    9:00 am Anami誕awin
    9:30 am Maamaw da-gaagiigidowag anishinaabeg gichi-bakesichiganing, ozhibii段gewin ji-dazhindamowaad, gaa-gii-ikidowaad ji-wiindamaadiwaad. Bezhig ozhibii段gewin da-odaapinigaade.
    12:00 noon Naawakwe-wiisiniwin
    1:00 pm Geyaabi da-nana段bii段gaade ozhibii段gewin ge-odaapinigaadeg. Da-dazhinjigaade giishpin ji-ozhichigaadeg izhichigewin ge-izhi-abiwaapan gichi-aya誕ag gaye gaa-nagajitoowaad anishinaabemowin gaye gaa-aanakanootamaagewaad ji-ani-naagajitoowaad oshki- izhinikaajiganan. Ishkwaawaach boozhoo段wewinan.

    9:00 AM Prayer
    9:30 AM The Plenary Session, will be held in the Ontario Room. This is the time for delegates to discuss the choice of orthography. Group session will result in choice of one orthography.
    12:00 Noon LUNCH Final revision of orthography to be used. Continuation of discussions. Conclude. Forming of an international Anishinaabe/Anisinabe/ Anicinabe Language Commission composed of Elders, Native language teachers, and translators. Closing Speeches.

     

    Aanikewiindamaagewin C Gaa-gii-biizhaawaad
    Appendix "C": Delegates

    [this section is omitted]

     

    Aanikewiindamaagewin D Aaniin ezhibii段geng miziwe
    Appendix "D": Orthographies

    Gaa-jakibii段gewaad
    Communities and Institutions Using the Macron System (Marked Long Vowel) (30)

    
    Kitigan Zibi, Quebec
    Pikogan, Quebec
    Rapid Lake, Quebec
    Lac Simon, Quebec
    Wolf Lake, Quebec
    Winneway, Quebec
    Golden Lake, Ont.
    Cote, Sask.
    Cowessess, Sask.
    Fishing Lake, Sask.
    Gordon, Sask.
    Keeseekoose, Sask.
    Key, Sask.
    Kinistin, Sask.
    Muscowpetung, Sask.
    Muskowekwan, Sask.
    Okanese, Sask.
    Pasqua, Sask.
    Peepeekisis, Sask.
    Sakimay, Sask.
    Saulteaux, Sask.
    White Bear, Sask.
    Yellow Quill, Sask. (Nut Lake)
    O辰hiese Band, Alberta
    Kitigan Zibi Cultural Centre, Maniwaki, Quebec
    Saskatoon Indian Cultural Centre,
    Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
    University of Saskatchewan, Regina, Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Regina, Saskatchewan

    Aanind Mazina段ganan:
    Publications:

    Algonquin Lexicon/Gitigan Zibi
    Saskatchewan publications include the
    Okinins Series Storybooks (10).

     

    Gaa-niizhoobii段gewaad:
    Communities and Universities Using the Double Vowel System (140)

    Alderville, Ont.
    Aroland Reserve, Ont
    Batchewana, Ont.
    Big Grassy, Ont.
    Big Island Reserve, Ont.
    Chippewas of Georgina Island, Ont.
    Chippewas of Kettle and Stoney, Ont.
    Chippewas of Rama, Ont.
    Chippewas of the Thames, Ont.
    Chippewas of Nawash, Ont.
    Chippewas of Sarnia, Ont.
    Chippewas of Saugeen, Ont.
    Cockburn Island, Ont.
    Couchiching, Ont.
    Curve Lake, Ont.
    Dalles, Ont.
    Dokis, Ont.
    Eagle Lake, Ont.
    Fort William, Ont.
    Garden River, Ont.
    Ginoogamiing (Long Lac), Ont.
    Grassy Narrows, Ont.
    Gull Bay, Ont.
    Henvey Inlet, Ont.
    Hornepayne, Ont.
    Lac De Milles Lacs, Ont.
    Lac La Croix, Ont.
    Lake Nipigon, Ont.
    Long Lake 58, Ont.
    Michipicoten, Ont.
    Mississauga, Ont.
    Mississauga of New Credit, Ont.
    Mississauga of Scugog, Ont
    Wikwemikong, Ont.
    Naicatchewenin, Ont.
    Nigigousiminikaning, Ont.
    Nipissing, Ont.
    Northwest Angle 33B, Ont.
    Northwest Angle 34A, Ont.
    Ojibways of Hiawatha, Ont.
    Onegaming, (Sabaskong) Ont.
    Pays Plat, Ont.
    Pic Heron Bay, Ont.
    Pic Mobert, Ont.
    Rainy Lake Reserve, Ont.
    Rat Portage, Ont.
    Red Rock (Lake Helen), Ont.
    Rocky Bay Reserve, Ont.
    Sagamok, Ont. (Spanish River)
    Sandpoint, Ont.
    Saugeen, Ont.
    Seine River, Ont.
    Serpent River, Ont.
    Shawanaga, Ont.
    Sheguiandah, Ont.
    Sheshegwaning, Ont.
    Shoal Lake 39, Ont.
    Shoal Lake 40, Ont.
    Sioux Narrows, Ont.
    Stanjikoming, Ont.
    Sucker Creek, Ont.
    Teme-Augama (Temagami), Ont.
    Thessalon, Ont.
    Wabaseemong (White Dog), Ont.
    Wabauskang, Ont.
    Wabigoon, Ont.
    Walpole Island, Ont.
    Wasauksing (Parry Island), Ont.
    Washagamis Bay, Ont.
    West Bay, Ont.
    Whitefish Bay, Ont.
    Whitefish Lake, Ont.
    Whitesand, Ont.
    Grand Portage, (Pigeon R.) Mn. USA
    Milles Lacs Reservation, Minnesota, USA
    Nett Lake (Bois Fort), Minnesota USA
    Red Lake Reservation, Minn. USA
    White Earth Res., Minnesota USA
    Bay Mills Res., Michigan USA
    Grand Traverse Res., Michigan USA
    Hannahville Ind. Com., Mich. USA
    Isabella Res., Michigan USA
    Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians,
    Michigan. USA
    Turtle Mountain, N. Dakota USA
    Bad River Res., Wisconsin USA
    Lac Courtes Oreilles, Wisconsin USA
    Lac Du Flambeau, Wisconsin USA
    Red Cliff Res., Wisconsin USA
    St. Croix Res., Wisconsin USA
    Magnetawan, Ont.
    Mattachewan, Ont.
    Mattagami, Ont.
    Moose Deer Point, Ont.
    Hollow Water, Manitoba
    Roseau River, Manitoba
    Roseau Rapids, Manitoba
    Berens River, Manitoba
    Bloodvein River, Manitoba
    Brokenhead River, Manitoba
    Buffalo Point, Manitoba
    Crane River, Manitoba
    Dauphin River, Manitoba
    Duck Bay, Manitoba
    Ebb and Flow, Manitoba
    Fairford, Manitoba
    Fisher River, Manitoba
    Jackhead, Manitoba
    Keeseekoowenin, Manitoba
    Lake Manitoba, Manitoba
    Lake St. Martin, Manitoba
    Little Black River, Manitoba
    Little Grand Rapids, Manitoba
    Little Saskatchewan River, Manitoba
    Long Plains Reserve, Manitoba
    Pauingassi, Manitoba
    Peguis, Manitoba
    Pine Creek, Manitoba
    Swan Lake, Manitoba
    Poplar River, Manitoba
    Portage La Prairie, Manitoba
    Rolling River Reserve, Manitoba
    Valley River, Manitoba
    Waterhen, Manitoba
    Waywayseecappo, Manitoba
    Red River Community College, Winnipeg, Mb.
    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba
    University of Wisconsin, Madison
    Bemidji State University, Bemidji Mn.
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Mn
    Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario
    Fanshawe College, Ont.
    Sault College, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
    Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
    United Native Friendship Centre,
    Fort Frances, Ontario
    Ojibway Cultural Foundation, West Bay, Ontario
    Ojibway Cultural Centre, Kenora, Ont.
    Itasca Community College, Grand Rapids, Mn.
    Manitoba Association for Native Languages,
    Winnipeg, Manitoba
    Manitoba Indian Cultural Education Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba

    Aanind Mazina段ganan:
    Some Publications Using Double Vowel:

    Anishinaabemodaa: Becoming A Successful
    Ojibwe Eavesdropper/Ningewance
    Ojibwe Dictionary/Nichols and Nyholm
    Ojibwe Dictionary/Rhodes
    Ojibwemowin/Staples
    Oshkaabewis Journal/Bemidji
    Survival Ojibwe/Ningewance
    Travelling With Ojibwe/
    Kidwenan/Toulouse

     

    Gaa-gwaashkwebijiganibii段gewaad gaye igi wiinawaa go gaa-ozhitoowaad ge-izhibii段gewaad
    Communities and Institutions Using Syllabic Writing and Folk Phonetics (16)

    Cat Lake, Ont.
    Constance Lake, Ont.
    Fort Hope, Ont.
    Lac Seul, Ont.
    Pikangikum, Ont.
    Poplar Hill, Ont.
    Ft. Alex Res., (Sageeng), Manitoba
    New Slate Falls, Ont.
    New Osnaburgh, Ont.
    Webique, Ont.
    Summer Beaver, Ont.
    Ogoki Post, Ont.
    University of Toronto, Ont.
    Confederation College, Thunder Bay, Ont.
    Wawatay News/Wawatay Native
    Communications Society, Sioux Lookout, Ont.
    Ojibway Cree Cultural Centre, Timmins, Ont.

     

    Wiinawaa go gaa-ozhitoowaad ge-izhibii段gewaad, gaye bakaan izhibii段gewinan
    (8) Communities That Use Folk Phonetic Orthography or Orthographies That Are Not "Macron" or "Double Vowel"

    (Gaawiin gakina omaa niibidebiiwaasiiwag owe gaa-izhibii段gewaad aaniish ini dazhiikewinan gaa-izhi-aabadakin niizhoobii段gewin gemaa jakibii段gewin, zhaagooch niibiwa imaa ayaawag wiinawaa go gaa-ozhitoowaad ge-izhibii段gewaad. Igiwe goda gaa-nitaa-anishinaabemowaad noongom dash gaa-maajii-anishinaabebii段gewaad.)
    (This is a partial list because every community that officially uses Macron or Double Vowel orthography has many phonetic spellers.)

    Fond Du Lac Res. Minnesota, USA
    Leech Lake Reservation, Mn. USA
    Beauseoleil, Ont
    Brunswick House, Ont.
    Beaverhouse, Ont.
    Chapleau Ojibwe, Ont.
    Sokoagon Chippewa Com. Wis. USA
    Sandy Bay, Manitoba

    Aanind Mazina段ganan
    Publications Using Folk Phonetic or Other Orthography

    Materials/Rosemarie Christianson, Duluth, Minnesota
    Grandmother痴 Stories/Sandy Bay
    Ojibway Lessons/Basil Johnston
    Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language/Baraga
    Ojibwe Dictionary/Wilson
    Saulteaux Lessons/Voorhis

     

     

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