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The excerpt from the
"History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan;
and grammar of their language"
by Andrew J. Blackbird (1887)

Grammar of the
Ottawa and Chippewa Language

[The Double Vowel spelling is shown in brackets after the old phonetic spelling.
I'm not too good in the Ottawa dialect, especially this old style Ottawa dialect,
so I will spell those words as they are in modern Minnesota Ojibwe.]

 

NOUNS.

Common nouns in the Ottawa and Chippewa language are divided into two classes, animate and inanimate. Animate nouns are those which signify living objects or objects supposed to have life, as persons, animals and plants. Inanimate nouns signify objects without life.

A third form of nouns is derived from these two classes, called diminutive nouns. These are formed by the termination "ens" or "ns" placed upon other nouns.

The plural of animate nouns is usually formed by adding the syllable "wog" to the singular; if the word ends in a vowel, only the letter "g" is added; and sometimes the syllables "yog," "ag," or "og."

All words are pronounced with accent on the last syllable.

Sing. Pl. Eng.
Pe-nay
[bine]
Pe-nay-wog
[binewag]
Partridge
Aw-dje-djawk
[ajijaak]
Aw-dje-djaw-wog
[ajijaakwag]
Crane
Waw-mawsh-kay-she
[waawaashkeshi]
Waw-mawsh-kay-she-wog
[waawaashkeshiwag]
Deer
Waw-goosh
[waagosh]
Waw-goosh-og
[waagoshag]
Fox
Pezhe-kee
[bizhiki]
Pezhe-kee-wog
[bizhikiwag]
Cattle
Pezhe-keens, (dim.)
[bizhikiins]
Pezhe-keens-og
[bizhikiinsag]
Calf
Aw-ni-moush
[animosh]
Aw-ni-moush-og
[animoshag]
Dog
Aw-ni-mouns, (dim.)
[animoons]
Aw-ni-mouns-og
[animoonsag]
Puppy

The plural of inanimate nouns usually terminates in an, en, on, or n.

Sing. Pl. Eng.
We-ok-won
[wiiwakwaan]
We-ok-won-an
[wiiwakwaanan]
Hat
Wig-wom
[wiigiwaam]
Wig-wom-an
[wiigiwaaman]
House
Mo-ke-sin
[makizin]
Mo-ke-sin-an
[makizinan]
Shoe
Maw-kok
[makak]
Maw-kok-on
[makakoon]
Box
Maw-kok-ons, (dim.)
[makakoons]
Maw-kok-on-son
[makakoonsan]
Small box
Tchi-mawn
[jiimaan]
Tchi-mawn-an
[jiimaanan]
Boat
Tchi-maw-nes, (dim.)
[jiimaanens]
Tchi-maw-nes-on
[jiimaanensan]
Small boat


Nouns have three cases, nominative, locative and objective. The locative case denotes the relation usually expressed in English by the use of a preposition, or by the genitive, dative and ablative in Latin.

Nom. Aw-kick
[akik]
Kettle
Loc. Aw-kick-ong
[akikong]
In the kettle
E-naw-bin aw-kick-ong
[inaabin akikong]
Do look in the kettle

This relation can be expressed by the word "pin-je," [biinji-] as "Pin-je aw-kick," [biinji-akik] - in the kettle; "E-naw-bin pin-je aw-kick," [inaabin biinji-akik] - do look in the kettle; but this form is seldom used. It is employed only for great emphasis or formality.

The locative termination is "ong," "eng," or "ing."

The objective case is like the nominative when the subject is in the 1st or 2d person, but when the subject is in the 3d person the object takes the termination "won."

Example of locative and objective cases. Chicago is derived from sha-gog-ong, the locative case of the Ottawa word she-gog, meaning skunk; nominative, she-gog; locative, she-gog-ong; objective, she-gog or she-gog-won.

Locative case-- 
She-gog-ong ne-de-zhaw
[Zhigaagong nindizhaa]
I am going to Chicago.
She-gog-ong ne-do-je-baw
[Zhigaagong nindoonjibaa]
I come from Chicago.
She-gog-ong o-zhawn
[Zhigaagong izhaan]
Go to Chicago.

Objective case-- 
1st p.--She-gog ne-ne-saw
[zhigaag ninisaa]
I kill the skunk.
2d p.--She-gog ke-ne-saw
[zhigaag ginisaa]
You kill the skunk.
3d p.--She-gog-won o-ne-sawn
[zhigaagwan onisaan]
He kills the skunk.


Gender is distinguished by the word "quay," either prefixed or added to nouns, to indicate the feminine.

Aw-ne-ne, pl. wog; Man
[inini, -wag]
Aw-quay, pl. wog; Woman
[ikwe, -wag]
Aw-nish-naw-bay; Indian man
[anishinaabe]
Aw-nesh-naw-bay-quay; Indian woman
[anishinaabekwe]
Osh-kee-naw-way; Young man
[oshkinawe]
Osh-kee-ne-ge-quay; Young woman
[oshkiniigikwe]
Que-we-zayns, pl. og; Boy
[gwiiwizens, -ag]
Quay-zayns, pl. og; Girl
[ikwezens, -ag]
Aw-yaw-bay-pe-zhe-kee; Bull
[ayaabe-bizhiki]
Quay-pe-zhe-kee; Cow
[ikwe-bizhiki]

Proper names always form the feminine by adding "quay."

Ce-naw-day; Irishman Ce-naw-day-quay; Irishwoman

Some genders are irregular.

Aw-ke-wa-zee; Old man
[akiwenziinh]
Me-de-mo-gay; Old woman
[mindimooyenh]
Aw-be-non-tchi, an infant, has no distinction of gender.
[abinoojiinh]
Os-see-maw, pl. g; Father
[oosimaa - he is a father (passive);
noos - my father]
O-gaw-shi-maw, pl. g; Mother
[og(ash)imaa - she is a mother (passive);
ninga(shi) - my mother]
Me-kaw-ne-see-maw; Brother
[niikaanisimaa - hi is a brother (ritualistic) (passive);
niikaan - my brother (ritualistic)]
O-me-say-c-maw; Sister
[omisesimaa - she is a sister (passive);
nimise - my sister]
O-me-shaw-mes-se-maw; Gr. father
[omishoomisimaa - he is a gr.father (passive);
nimishoomis - my gr.father]
O-kee-mes-se-maw; Grandmother
[ookomisimaa - she is a gr.mother (passive);
nookomis - my gr.mother]
O-me-shaw-way-e-maw; Uncle
[omishoomeyimaa - he is an uncle (passive);
nimishoome - my parallel uncle]
O-nou-shay-e-maw; Aunt
[onoshenyimaa - she is an aunt (passive);
ninoshenh - my parallel aunt]
We-taw-wis-see-maw; Male cousin
[witaawisimaa - he is a (male's) male-cross cousin (passive)
niitaawis - my (male's) male-cross cousin]
We-ne-mo-shay-e-maw; Fem. cousin
[wiinimoshenyimaa - she is a female cousin (of a man) (passive)
niinimoshenh - my female cousin (of a man)]

Diminutive nouns take the same modifications as the nouns from which they are derived.

Verbal and adjective are modified to agree with the animate or inanimate nouns to which they belong, as will be illustrated hereafter.


PRONOUNS.

Personal pronouns have no distinction of gender in the third person singular. A peculiarity of this language is the two forms for the first person plural. These two forms for pronouns, and for verbs in all moods and tenses, are like each other except in the first syllable. In one form the first syllable is always "Ke," and in the other "Ne." The form commencing with Ke is used only when speaking to one person, and that commencing with Ne, which might be called the multiple form, is used whenever more than one person is addressed, even though no word may appear in the sentence indicating how many. This is an idiosyncracy which perhaps would never have been developed, certainly would not be perpetuated, in any except an unwritten language. It is of no effect except is a language always colloquial. The multiple form will be given in this grammar as the first person plural, and, whether indicated or not, the other may be understood as being the same with the change of the first syllable from Ne to Ke.


PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Sing. Pl.
1st p.--Neen or nin, [niin], I {Ne-naw-wind, [niinawind], (mult), We
{Ke-naw-wind, [giinawind], We
2d p.--Keen or kin, [giin], Thou or you Ke-naw-waw, [giinawaa], You
3d p.--Ween or win, [wiin], He or she We-naw-waw, [wiinawaa], They

When these personal pronouns are connected with other words, or when they become subjects or objects of verbs, the first syllable only is used or pronounced. In the third person of verbs the pronoun is entirely omitted.

Sing. Pl.
Ne wob,   I see
[niwaab]
Ne-wob-me,    We see
[niwaabimin]
Ke wob,   You see
[giwaab]
Ke-wob-em,   You see
[giwaabim]
Wo-be,   He or she sees
[waabi]
Wo-be-wog,   They see
[waabiwag]

The whole pronoun is sometimes used when the emphatic or intensive form is desired, as,

Sing.--
Neen-ne wob
[niin niwaab]
I myself see.
Keen-ke wob
[giin giwaab]
You yourself see.
Ween wo-be
[wiin waabi]
He himself, or she herself sees.

Pl.--
Ne-naw-wind ne-wob-me
[niinawind niwaabimin]
We ourselves see.
Ke-naw-waw ke-wob-em
[giinawind giwaabim]
You yourself see.
We-naw-waw wo-be-wog
[wiinawaa waabiwag]
They themselves see


POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

Ne-daw-yo-em,   Mine
[nindayii'im - my thing]
Ne-daw-yo-em-e-naw,   Ours
[nindayii'iminaan - our thing]
Ke-daw-yo-em,   Thine
[gidayii'im - your thing]
Ke-daw-yo-em-e-waw,   Yours
[gidayii'iminaan - your thing]
O-daw-yo-em,   His or hers
[odayii'im - his thing]
O-daw-yo-em-e-waw,   Theirs
[odayii'iminaawaa - their thing]

Emphatic form - nin ne-daw-yo-em [niin nindayii'im] etc., throughout all the different persons. When these possessive pronouns are used with nouns, nearly all the syllables are omitted, except the first, which is added to the noun is the plural; as -

Sing. Pl.
Ne we-ok-won,   My hat
[niwiiwakwaan]
Ne we-ok-won-e-naw,   Our hat
[niwiiwakwaaninaan]
Ke we-ok-won,   Your hat
[giwiiwakwaan]
Ke-we-ok-won-e-waw,   Your hat
[giwiiwakwaaniwaa]
O we ok-won,   His hat
[owiiwakwaan]
O we-ok-won-e-waw,   Their hat
[owiiwakwaaniwaa]

The emphatic form, "my own hat," is made by prefixing the personal pronouns, as -

Sing.			Pl.

Neen ne we-ok-won, Ne-naw-wind ne we-ok-won-e-naw,
[niin niwiiwakwaan] [niinawind niwiiwakwaaninaan]
Keen ke we-ok-won, Ke-naw-waw ke we-ok-won-e-waw,
[giin giwiiwakwaan] [giinawaa niwiiwakwaaniwaa]
Ween o we-ok-won, We-naw-waw o we-ok-won-e-waw.
[wiin owiiwakwaan] [wiinawaa owiiwakwaaniwaa]


THE IMPERSONAL PRONOUN.

The impersonal pronoun "maw-got," [-magad] plural "maw-got-on," [-magadoon] may be represented by the English impersonal or neuter pronoun it, but it has a wider significance. The inanimate subject of a verb is also represented by maw-got or maw-got-on. Wa-po-tchin-ga maw-got, or wa-po-tchin-ga-sa maw-got, it strikes; plural, wa-po-tchin-ga maw-got-on, or wa-po-tchin-ga-sa maw-got-on, they strike.

Au-no-ke maw-got,   It works
[anokii-magad]
Pe-me-say maw-got,   It walks
[bimose-magad]
Ne-bo-we maw-got,   It stands
[niibawi-magad]
Wo-be maw-got,   It sees
[waabi-magad]
Pe-me-baw-to maw-got,   It runs
[bimibatoo-magad]

Au-nish, interrogative pronoun what; au-naw-tchi, relative pronoun what; e-we, relative pronoun that.


ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives take two forms, agree with the animate or inanimate nouns to which they belong.

Comparison of adjectives is made by other words: O-ne-zhe-she [onizhishi] (inanimate o-ne-zhe-shin [onizhishin]), good; Maw-maw-me [maamawi] (or ne-go-ne [niigaanii]) o-ne-zhe [onizhishi] (or -shin), better; Au-pe-tchi o-ne-zhe-she [aapiji onizhishi] (or -shin), best. A fourth degree is sometimes used: Maw-mo-me o-ne-zhe-she [maamawi onozhishi] (or shin), very best.

The words "Me-no" [mino-] and "Maw-tchi" [maji-] or "Mau-tchi," do not change when used with other words, and they are the most common adjectives in the Ottawa and Chippewa languages; they are used as adverbs, as well as adjectives.

"Me-no," [mino-] is equivalent to good, right, and well; and "Mau-tchi," is equivalent to bad, wicked, evil; as Me-no au-ne-ne [mino-inini], good man; Me-no au-quay [mino-ikwe], good woman; Me-no au-way-sin [mino-awesiinh], good animal; Me-no au-ky [mino-aki], good land; Me-no waw-bo-yon [mino-waabooyaan], good blanket; Me-no e-zhe-wa-be-sy [mino-izhiwebizi], good behavior, or kind; Me-no au-no-ky [mino-anokii], he works well, or doing good business; Me-no pe-maw-de-sy [mino-bimaadizi], he is well; Me-no au-yaw [mino-ayaa], he is getting well, or convalescent from sickness; Me-no au-no-kaw-so-win [mino-anokaazowin], good utensil, or handy instrument; Me-no wau-gaw-quat [mino-waagaakwad], good ax; Me-no ke-zhi-gut [mino-giizhigad], good day, or pleasant weather; Me-no au-no-kaw-tchi-gon [mino-anokaajigan], good goods, or nice goods; Me-no e-zhe-wa-be-sy [mino-izhiwebizi], he or she is kind or good; Me-no maw-tchaw maw-got [mino-maajaamagad], it goes well, etc.

The word "Mau-tchi" [maji-] is equally useful; as, Mau-tchi au-ne-ne [maji-inini], bad man; Mau-tchi au-quay [maji-ikwe], bad woman; Mau-tchi e-zhe-wa-be-sy [maji-izhiwebizi], bad behavior, or wicked person; Mau-tchi may-ne-to [maji-manidoo], evil spirit, or the devil; Mau-tchi ke-ge-to [maji-giigido], wicked language, or profanity; Mau-tchi wau-gaw-quat [maji-waagaakwad], bad ax; Mau-tchi ke-zhwa [maji-giizhwe], vulgar speaker; Mau-tchi no-din [maji-noodin], bad wind; Mau-tchi au-naw-quot [maji-aanakwad], bad cloud; Mau-tchi ke-zhe-got [maji-giizhigad], bad day, or rough weather; Mau-tchi wig-wom [maji-wiigiwaam], bad house, or wicked house; Mau-tchi au-no-ke-win [maji-anokiiwin], bad business, etc.

Another adjective equally comprehensive is Kwaw-notch [gwanaaj]: Kwaw-notch au-ne-ne [gwanaaj-inini], well-behaved man; Kwaw-notch au-quay [gwanaaj-ikwe], pretty woman; Kwaw-notch au-no-ke-win [gwanaaj-anokiiwin], good business; Kwaw-notch au-no-kaw-tchi-gon [gwanaaj anokaajigan], nice goods; Kwaw-notchi-won [gwanaajiwan], pretty or nice (inanimate); Kwaw-notchi-we [gwanaajiwi], pretty (animate); Au-pe-tchi kwaw-notchi-we au-quay [aapiji gwanaajiwi ikwe], very pretty woman.

The following illustrate the changes of form in adjectives for animate and inanimate:

Animate Inanimate
Me-no-e-zhe-wa-be-sy
[mino-izhiwebizi]
Me-no-e-zhe-wa-bawt
[mino-izhiwebad]
Kind, mild
Ke-no-sy
[ginoozi]
Ke-nwa
[ginwaa]
Long, tall
Ke-zhe-we-sy
Ke-zhe-waw
Hard
Mush-kaw-we-sy
[mashkawizi]
Mush-kaw-waw
[mashkawaa]
Strong
Ke-zhe-kaw, or ke-zhe-be-so
[gizhiikaa, or gizhiibizo]
Ke-zhe-be-ta
[gizhiibide]
Swift, fleet
Ko-se-gwan-ny
[gozigwani]
Ko-se-gwan
[gozigwan]
Heavy
Maw-tchi-e-zhe-wa-be-sy
[maji-izhiwebizi]
Maw-tchi-e-zhe-wa-bot
[maji-izhiwebad]
Bad
Ma-tchaw-yaw-au-wish
[maji-aya'aawish]
Ma-tchaw-yaw-e-wish
[maji-ayi'iiwish]
Wicked
We-saw-ge-sy
[wiisagizi]
We-saw-gun
[wiisagan]
Bitter
Wish-ko-be-sy
[wiishkobizi]
Wish-ko-bun
[wiishkoban]
Sweet
Sou-ge-sy
[zoongizi]
Sou-gun
[zoongan]
Tough
Se-we-sy
[zhiiwizi]
Se-won
[zhiiwan]
Sour
Maw-kaw-te-we-sy
[makadewizi]
Maw-kaw-te-waw
[makadewaa]
Black
Ozaw-we-sy
[ozaawizi]
Ozaw-waw
[ozaawaa]
Yellow
Ozhaw-wash-ko-sy
[ozhaawashkozi]
Ozhaw-wash-kwaw
[ozhaawashkwaa]
Green
Mis-ko-sy
[miskozi]
Mis-kwa
[miskwaa]
Red
We-bin-go-sy
[waabiingozi]
We-bin-gwaw
[waabiingwaa]
Blue
O-zaw won-so
[ozaawaanzo]
O-zaw won-day
[ozaawaande]
Yellow color
Maw-kaw-te won-so
[makadewaanzo]
Maw-kaw-te won-day
[makadewaande]
Black color
Maw-kaw-te au-ne-ne,
[makade-inini]
black man
Maw-kaw-te mo-kok,
[makade-makak]
black box
Mis-ko au-ne-ne, 
[misko-inini]
red man
Mis-ko wau-bo-yon, 
[misko-waabooyaan]
red blanket

It will be observed that the last one or two syllables of the adjective are dropped when in connection with a noun.


VERBS.

Ottawa and Chippewa verbs are changed in their conjugations, to indicate -

  • 1st.   Whether their subjects are animate, or inanimate;
  • 2d.   Whether their objects are animate, or inanimate;
  • 3d.   Whether they are transitive, or intransitive;
  • 4th.   Whether they are active, or passive, or reflective;
  • 5th.   Whether the expression is common, or emphatic.

They also express by their forms all of the distinctions of mood and tense, person and number, found in the English, and form their parciples, and are changed into verbal or participial nouns; and these modifications are for the most part regular in form.

I. Verbs with inanimate subjects correspond to English impersonal or neuter verbs, but are much more extensively used. They are usually formed by adding the impersonal pronoun, maw-got - it as,

Animate Subject Inanimate Subject. 
Sing.
Au-nou-kee,   he works 
[anokii]
Au-nou-ke-maw-got,   it works
[anokii-magad]
Ke-au-nou-ke,   he worked 
[gii-anokii]
Ke-au-nou-ke-maw-got,   it worked
[gii-anokii-magad]

Plu.
Au-nou-ke-wog,   they work
[anokiiwag]
Au-nou-ke-maw-go-toun,   things work
[anokii-magadoon]
Ke-au-nou-ke-wog,   " worked
[gii-anokiiwag]
Ke-au-nou-ke-maw-go-toun,   " worked
[gii-anokii-magadoon]

Standing trees, as well as all living creatures and personified things, are regarded as animate.

II, III. The distinctions for animate and inanimate objects, and for transitive and intransitive, are illustrated by the following:

Object
Singular - I kill, Thou killest, etc.
Intransitive. Transitive.
Pers. Animate Object Inanimate
1 Ne-ne-taw-gay
[ninitaage - I kill]
Ne-ne-saw
[ninisaa - I kill him]
Ne-ne-ton
[ninitoon - I kill it]
2 Ke-ne-taw-gay
[ginitaage - you kill]
Ke-ne-saw
[ginisaa - you kill him]
Ke-ne-toun 
[ginitoon - you kill it]
3 Ne-taw-gay
[nitaage - he kills]
O-ne-sawn, or son
[onisaan - he kills him]
O-ne-toun 
[onitoon - he kills it]
Plural - We kill, You kill, etc.
1 Ne-ne-taw-gay-me 
[ninitaagemi(n)]
Ne-ne-saw-naw 
[ninisaanaan - we kill him]
Ne-ne-tou-naw 
[ninitoomin - we kill it]
2 Ke-ne-taw-gaym
[ginitaagem]
Ke-new-saw-waw 
[ginisaawaa - you kill him]
Ke-ne-tou-naw-waw 
[ginitoonawaa - you kill it]
3 Ne-taw-gay-wog 
[nitaagewag]
O-ne-saw-wawn or won 
[onisaawaan - they kill him]
O-ne-tou-naw-waw 
[onitoonawaa - they kill it]
Singular--I see, Thou seest, etc. 
1 Ne-waub 
[niwaab - I see]
Ne-waub-maw 
[niwaabamaa - I see him]
Ne-waub-don, or dawn 
[niwaabandaan - I see it]
2 Ke-waub 
[giwaab - you see]
Ke-waub-maw 
[giwaabamaa - you see him]
Ke-waub-don, or dawn 
[giwaabandaan - you see it]
3 Wau-be
[waabi - he sees]
O-waub-mon, or mawn
[owabamaan - he sees him]
O-waub-don, or dawn 
[owaabandaan - he sees it]
Plural--We see, You see, etc.
1 Ne-waub-me
[niwaabami(n)]
Ne-waub-maw-naw
[niwaabamaanaan - we see him]
Ne-waub-daw-naw
[niwaabandaamin - we see it]
2 Ke-wau-bem
[giwaabim]
Ke-waub-maw-waw
[giwaabamaawaa - you see him]
Ke-waub-daw-naw-wan
[giwaabandaanaawaa - you see it]
3 Wau-be-wog
[waabiwag]
O-waub-naw-won
[owaabamaawaan - they see him]
O-waub-daw-naw-wan
[owaabandaanaawaa - they see it]

IV. What is denominated the reflective form of the verb, is where the subject and the object are the same person or thing; as, in English, He hates himself. The passive and reflective forms are illustrated in the verb, To See, thus:

Passive.  Reflective. 
Ne-wob-me-go,   I am seen 
[niwaabamigoo]
Ne-wan-baw-dis,   I see myself. 
[niwaabamidiz]
Ke-wob-me-go,   thou art seen 
[giwaabamigoo]
Ke-wau-baw-dis,   thou sees thyself. 
[giwaabamidiz]
Wob-maw,   he is seen 
[waabamaa]
Wau-baw-de-so,   he sees himself. 
[waabamidizo]
Ne-wob-me-go-me,   we are seen 
[niwaabamigoomi(n)]]
Ne-wau-baw-de-so-me,   we s. ourslvs. 
[niwaabamidizomin]
Ke-wob-me-gom,   you are seen 
[giwaabamigoom]
Ke-wau-baw-de-som,   you s. yourslvs. 
[giwaabamidizom]
Wob-maw-wag,   they are seen 
[waabamaawag]
Wau-baw-de-so-wag,   they s. thmslvs.
[waabamidizowag]

V. The emphatic form repeats the first part of the pronoun; as, Ne-waub [niwaab], I see; Nin-ne-waub [niin niwaab]; I do see (literally, I myself see).

Intransitive.
Common Form--I eat, etc.  Emphatic Form--I do eat, etc.
1 Ne-we-sin [niwiisin] Nin-ne-we-sin [niin niwiisin]
2 Ke-we-sin [giwiisin] Kin-ke-we-sin [giin giwiisin]
3 We-se-ne  [wiisini] Win-we-we-sin [wiin wiisini]
Transitive--Animate Object.
1 Ne-daw-mwaw [nindamwaa] Nin-ne-daw-mwaw [niin nindamwaa]
2 Ke-daw-mwaw [gidamwaa] Kin-ke-daw-mwaw [giin gidamwaa]
3 O-daw-mwaw [odamwaan] Win-o-daw-mwaw [wiin odamwaan]
Transitive--Inanimate Object.
1 Ne-me-djin  [nimiijin] Nin-ne-me-djin [niin nimiijin]
2 Ke-me-djin [gimiijim] Kin-ke-me-djin [giin gimiijin]
3 O-me-djin [omiijin] Win-o-me-djin [wiin omiijin]

The object is frequently placed before the verb-- always when in answer to a question. Thus, the answer to the question, What is he eating? would be, Ke-goon, yan o-daw-mwawm [giigoonh (-yan) odamwaan] - Fish he is eating.

Nouns are formed from verbs by adding "win"; as, waub , to see, wau-be-win [waabiwin], sight; paw-pe, to laugh, paw-pe-win [baapiwin], laughter; au-no-ke, to work, au-no-ke-win [anokiiwin], labor.


------------------------------------

Note. - A verb susceptible of both the transitive and intransitive office, and of both animate and inanimate subjects, as, for instance, the verb. To Blow, may have no less than fifteen forms for the indicative present third person singular. The intransitive may be both animate and inanimate as to subject, and the former both common and emphatic; the transitive would have the same, ultiplied by animate and inanimate objects; and the passive and reflective would each have inanimate, and common and emphatic animate--fifteen. Double these for the plural, and we have thirty forms; and that multiplied by the sixteen tenses of the indicative, potential and subjunctive moods gives 480 forms of third person. The first and second persons have the same, minus the inaminate subject, or 20 each for each tense, making 640 more, or 1120 all together in those three moods. The imperative singular and plural, and the infinitive present and past, and the participles, add 25. Then there is the additional form for the first person plural, treated under "Pronouns," running through all the sixteen tenses, common and emphatic, animate and inanimate and intransitive, 96 more--making the astonishing number of 1241 forms of a single verb! - [Editor.


Conjugation of the Verb To Be.

Indicative Mood.

Present Tense - I am, etc.
Pers. Singular.  Plural.
1    Ne-daw-yaw [nindayaa] Ne-daw-yaw-me [nindayaamin]
2    Ke-daw-yaw [gidayaa] Ke-daw-yaw-me [2pl. - gidayaam]
3    Aw-yaw [ayaa] Aw-yaw-waug or wog [ayaawag]
Imperfect Tense - I was, etc.
1    Ne-ge-au-yaw [ningii-ayaa] Ne-ge-au-yaw-me [ningii-ayaamin]
2    Ke-ge-au-yaw [gigii-ayaa] Ke-ge-au-yawm [gigii-ayaam]
3    Ke-au-yaw [gii-ayaa] Ke-au-yaw-wog gii-ayaawag]
Perfect Tense - I have been, etc.
1    Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-au-yaw
     [azhigwa ningii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-au-yaw-me
[azhigwa ningii-ayaamin]
2    Au-zhe-gwaw ke-ge-au-yaw
     [azhigwa gigii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwaw ke-ge-au-yawm
[azhigwa gigii-ayaam]
3    Au-zhe-gwaw ke-au-yaw
     [azhigwa gii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwaw ke-au-yaw-wog
[azhigwa gii-ayaawag]
Pluperfect Tense - I had been, etc.
1    Ne-ge-au-yaw-naw-baw 
     [ningii-ayaanaaban]
Ne-ge-au-me-naw-baw
[ningii-ayaaminaaban]
2    Ke-ge-au-yaw-naw-baw
     [gigii-ayaanaaban]
Ke-ge-au-me-naw-baw
[2pl. - gigii-ayaamwaaban]
3    Ke-au-yaw-baw
     [gii-ayaawiban]
Ke-au-yaw-baw-neg
[gii-ayaawibaniig]
Future Tense - I shall or will be, etc.
1    Ne-gaw-au-yaw
     [ninga-ayaa]
Ne-gaw-au-yaw-me
[ninga-ayaami(n)]
2    Ke-gaw-au-yaw 
     [giga-ayaa]
Ke-gaw-au-yawm
[giga-ayaam]
3    Taw-au-yaw
     [da-ayaa]
Taw-au-yaw-wag
[da-ayaawag]

Potential Mood.

Present Tense - I may or can be, etc.
1    Ko-maw ne-taw-au-yaw
     [gemaa nindaa-ayaa]
Ko-maw ne-taw-au-yaw-me
[gemaa nindaa-ayaami(n)]
2    Ko-maw ke-taw-au-yaw
     [gemaa gidaa-ayaa]
Ko-maw ke-taw-au-yawm
[gemaa gidaa-ayaam]
3    Ko-maw tau-yaw
     [gemaa daa-ayaa]
Ko-maw taw-au-yo-wog
[gemaa da-ayaawag]
Imperfect Tense - I might be, etc.
1    Ko-maw ne-ge-au-yaw
     [gemaa ningii-ayaa]
Ko-maw ne-ge-au-yaw-me
[gemaa ningii-ayaamin]
2    Ko-maw ke-ge-au-yaw 
     [gemaa gigii-ayaa]
Ko-maw ke-ge-au-yom
[gemaa gigii-ayaam]
3    Ko-maw ke-au-yaw
     [gemaa gii-ayaa]
Ko-maw ke-au-yaw-wog
[gemaa gii-ayaawag]
Perfect Tense - I may have been, etc.
1    Au-zhe-gwau ne-tau-ge-au-yaw
     [azhigwa nindaa-gii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwau ne-tau-ge-au-yaw-me
[azhigwa nindaa-gii-ayaami(n)]
2    Au-zhe-gwau ke-tau-ge-au-yaw
     [azhigwa gidaa-gii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwau ke-tau-ge-au-yawm
[azhigwa gidaa-gii-ayaam]
3    Au-zhe-gwau tau-ge-au-yaw
     [azhigwa daa-gii-ayaa]
Au-zhe-gwau tau-ge-au-yaw-og
[azhigwa daa-gii-ayaawag]
Pluperfect Tense - I might have been, etc.
1    Ko-maw au-yaw-yom-baw
     [gemaa ayaayaambaan]
Ko-maw au-yaw-wong-ge-baw
[gemaa ayaayaangiban]
2    Ko-maw ke-au-yaw-yom-baw
     [gemaa ayaayaamban]
Ko-maw au-yaw-ye-go-baw
[gemaa ayaayegoban]
3    Ko-maw au-yaw-go-baw-nay
     [3sg. - gemaa ayaapan]
Ko-maw au-yaw-wo-go-baw-nay
[3pl. - gemaa ayaawaapan]

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense - If I be, etc.
1    Tchish-pin au-yaw-yaw
     [giishpin ayaayaan]
Tchish-pin au-yaw-wong
[giishpin ayaayaang]
2    Tchish-pin au-yaw-yon
     [giishpin ayaayan]
Tchish-pin au-yaw-yeg
[giishpin ayaayeg]
3    Tchish-pin au-yawd
     [giishpin ayaad]
Tchish-pin au-yaw-wod
[giishpin ayaawaad]
Imperfect Tense - If I were, etc.
1    Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yaw
     [giishpiin gii-ayaayaan]
Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-wong
[giishpin gii-ayaayaang]
2    Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yon
     [giishpin gii-ayaayan]
Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-yeg
[giishpin gii-ayaayeg]
3    Tchish-pin ke-au-yawd
     [giishpin gii-ayaad]
Tchish-pin ke-au-yaw-wod
[giishpin gii-ayaawaad]
Perfect Tense - If I have been, etc.
1    Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-yaw
     [giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaayaan]
Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-aw-yaw-wong
[giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaayaang]
2    Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-yon 
     [giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaayan]
Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-yeg
[giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaayeg]
3    Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yawd
     [giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaad]
Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa ke-au-yaw-wod
[giishpin azhigwa gii-ayaawaad]
[The syllable "gwa" is often omitted, merely saying, "au-zhe."]
Pluperfect Tense - If I had been, etc.
1    Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-yaw-baw
     [azhi gii-ayaayaambaan]
Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-wong-o-baw
[azhi gii-ayaayaangiban]
2    Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-yawm-baw
     [azhi gii-ayaayaamban]
Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-ye-go-baw
[azhi gii-ayaayegoban]
3    Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-paw
     [azhi gii-ayaapan]
Au-zhe ke-au-yaw-wau-paw
[azhi gii-ayaawaapan]
 Future Tense - If I shall or will be, etc.
1    Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yaw
     [giishpin wii-ayaayaan]
Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-wong
[giishpin wii-ayaayaang]
2    Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yon
     [giishpin wii-ayaayan]
Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-yeg
[giishpin wii-ayaayeg]
3    Tchish-pin we-au-yawd
     [giishpin wii-ayaad]
Tchish-pin we-au-yaw-wod
[giishpin wii-ayaawaad]

Imperative Mood - Be thou, Do you be.

2    Au-yawm
     [ayaan]
Au-yawg
[ayaag]

Infinitive Mood - To be, To have been.

Present - Tchi-au-yong [ji-ayaang]
Perfect - Au-zhe tchi-ke-au-yong [azhi ji-gii-ayaang]

Participles - Being, Been, Having been.

Au-zhaw-yong        Tchi-ge-au-yong         Au zhe-gwaw tchi-ge-au-yong


Synopsis of the Verb To See.

I see,   Ne-wob. [niwaab]
I saw,   Ne-ge-wob. [ningii-waab]
I have seen,   Au-zhe-gwaw ne-ge-wob. [azhigwa ningii-waab]
I had seen,   Ne-ge-wob-naw-baw. [ningii-waabanaabaan]
I shall see,   Ne-gaw-wob. [ninga-waab]
I shall have seen,   Au-zhe-ge-wob. [azhi ningii-waab]

I may see,   Ko-maw ne-taw-wob. [gemaa nindaa-waab]
I might see,   Ko-maw ne-ge-wob. [gemaa ningii-waab]
I may have seen,  Au-zhe-gwaw ne-taw-ge-wob. [azhigwa nindaa-gii-waab]
I might have seen,  Ko-maw wob-yawm-baw. [gemaa waabiyaambaan]

If I see,   Tchish-pin wob-yon. [giishpin waabiyaan]
If I saw,   Tchish-pin ke-wob-yon-baw. [giishpin gii-waabiyaambaan]
If I have seen,   Tchish-pin au-zhe-gwa wob-yon. [giishpin azhigwa waabiyaan]
If I had seen,   Tchish-pin ke-wob-yon-baw. [giishpin gii-waabiyaambaan]
If I shall see,   Tchish-pin we-wob-yon. [giishpin wii-waabiyaan]
If I shall have seen,   Tchish-pin we-wob-yon-baw. [giishpin wii-waabiyaambaan]

See thou,   Wob-ben. [waabin]
To see,   Tchi-wob-bing. [ji-waabing]

To have seen,   Tchi-ge-wob-bing. [ji-gii-waabing]
Seeing,   Au-wob-bing. [e-waabing ?]
Having seen,   Au-zhe-gwaw au-ge-wob-bing. [azhigwa e-gii-waabing]
Having been seen,   Au-ge-wob-bing-e-baw. [a-gii-waabingiban]

I am seen,   Ne-wob-me-go. [niwaabamigoo]
I was seen,   Ne-ge-wob-me-go. [ningii-waabamigoo]
I have been seen,   Au-zhe ne-ge-wob-me-go. [azhi ningii-waabamigoo]
I had been seen,   Ne-ge-wob-me-go-naw-baw. [ningii-waabamigoonaaban]
I shall be seen,   Ne-gaw-wob-me-go. [ninga-waabamigoo]
I shall have been seen,   She-gwa-we-wob-me-go-yon. [zhigwa wii-waabamigooyaan]

I may be seen,   Ko-maw wob-me-go-yon. [gemaa waabamigooyaan]
I might be seen,   Ko-maw ke-wob-me-go-yon. [gemaa gii-waabamigooyaan]
I may have been seen,   Ko-maw au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon. [gemaa azhi gii-waabamigooyaan]
I might have been seen,   Ko-maw au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon-baw. [gemaa azhi gii-waabamigooyaambaan]

If I be seen,   Tchish-pin wob-em-go-yon. [giishpin waabamigooyaan]
If I have been seen,   Tchish-pin au-zhe ke-wob-me-go-yon. [giishpin azhi gii-waabamigooyaan]
If I had been seen,   Tchish-pin ke-wob-me-go-yon-baw. [giishpin gii-waabamigooyaambaan]
If I shall be seen,   Tchish-pin we-wob-me-go-yon. [giishpin wii-waabamigooyaan]
If I shall have been seen,   Tchish-pin she-gwa-we-wob-me-go-yon. [giishpin zhigwa wii-waabamigooyaan]

I see myself,   Ne-wau-baw-dis. [ni-waabamidiz]
I saw myself,   Ne-ge-wau-baw-dis. [nigii-waabamidiz]
I shall see myself,   Ne-gaw-wau-baw-dis. [ninga-waabamidiz]
I may see myself,   Ko-maw ne-daw-wau-baw-dis. [gemaa nindaa-waabamidiz]
See thyself,   Wau-baw-de-son. [waabamidizon]
To see thyself, Tchi-wob-on-di-song. [ji-waabamidizong]


MINOR PARTS OF SPEECH.

Adverbs: When, au-pe [apii], au-ue-nish [aaniish]; where, au-ne-pe, au-ne-zhaw; there, e-wo-te [iwidi], au-zhe-we. [The significance of the double forms is not clear; and comparison, as with Adjectives, seems to be by different words.--Ed.]

Prepositions are few, and are oftener embraced in the form of the Verb, as in the Latin. The most important are, pin-je [biinji-], in; tchish-pin, or kish-pin [giishpin], if. Po-taw-wen pin-je ke-zhap ke-ze-gun [boodawen biinji-gizhaabikizigan], make some fire in the stove; Tchish-pin maw-tchawt [giishpin maajaad], if he go away. Or the same may be expressed, Po-taw-wen ke-zhap ke-ze-gun-ing [boodawen gizhaabikiziganing] ("ing" forming locative case, with the preposition implied); and, Maw-yaw-tchaw-gwen [mayaajaagwen] (the latter form of verb expressing subjunctive mood). The employment of the preposition makes the expression more emphatic.

The most important Conjunctions are, haw-yea, gaw-ya [gaye], ka-ie [gaye], and; and ke-maw [gemaa], or. [Three forms of "and" doubtless due to imperfect orthography.]

Interjections embrace, yaw! exclamation of danger; au-to-yo! surprise; a-te-way! disappointment; taw-wot-to! disgust; ke-yo-o! disgust (used only by females).

There is no Article; but the words, mondaw [maanda (ott.); o'ow (oj.)], that, and maw-baw [maaba (ott.); a'aw (oj.)], this, are often used before nouns as specifying terms, and are always emphatic. E-we [i'iw] is common for that, directed to things at a distance.

A peculiarity, of uncertain significance, is the termination, sh, or esh, employed in connection with the possessive case. It does not change the interpretation, and is perhaps an expression of familiarity, or intimate relationship. Illustration:

Ne-gwiss, my son [(n)ingwis] Ne-gwiss-esh, my son [(n)ingwisish]
Ne-daw-niss, my daughter [(n)indaanis] Ne-daw-niss-esh, my daughter [(n)indaanisish]
Ne-did, my head [nishtigwaan] Ne-did-awsh, my head [nishtigwaanish]
Ne-wau-bo-yon, my blanket [niwaabooyaan] Ne-wau bo-yon-esh, my blanket [niwaabooyaanish]
Ne-gwiss-og, my sons [(n)ingwisag] Ne-gwiss-es-shog, my sons [(n)ingwisishag]
Ne-daw-niss-og, my daughters
[(n)indaanisag]
Ne-daw-niss-es-shog, my daughters
[(n)indaanisishag]


VOCABULARIES.

One,   Pa-zhig. [bezhig]
Two,   Nezh [niizh]
Three,   Ness-we [niswi]
Four,   Ne-win [niiwin]
Five,   Naw-non [naanan]
Six,   Ne-go-twos-we [ningodwaaswi]
Seven,   Nezh-was-we [niizhwaaswi]
Eight,   Nish-shwas-we [nishwaaswi]
Nine,   Shong-swe [zhaangaswi]
Ten,   Me-toss-we [midaaswi]
Twenty,   Nezh-to-naw [niizhtana]
Thirty,   Ne-se-me-to-naw [nisimidana]
Forty,   Ne-me-to-naw [niimidana]
Fifty,   Naw-ne-me-to-naw [naanimidana]
Sixty,   Ne-go-twa-se-me-to-naw [ningodwaasimidana]
Seventy,   Nezh-wo-se-me-to-naw [niizhwaasimidana]
Eighty,   Nish-wo-se-me-to-naw [nishwaasimidana]
Ninety,   Shong-gaw-se-me-to-naw [zhaangasimidana]
One hundred,   Go-twok [godwaak, ningodwaak]

Father,   Os-se-maw, pl. g.
[oosimaa - he is a father (passive)]
Mother,   O-gaw-shi-maw, pl. g.
[ogashimaa - she is a mother (passive)]
Brother,   We-kaw-ne-se-maw.
[wiikaanisimaa - he is a brother (passive)]
Sister,   O-me-say-e-maw.
[omisenyimaa - she is an older sister (passive)]
Gr'father,   O-me-shaw-mes-e-maw.
[omishoomisimaa - he is a grandfather (passive)]
Gr'mother,   O-ko-mes-se-maw.
[okoomisimaa - she is a grandmother (passive)]
Cousin, m.   We-taw-wis-e-maw.
[wiitawisimaa - he is a male cross-cousin (male's) (passive)]
Cousin, fm.,   We-ne-mo-shay-emaw.
[wiinimoosheyimaa - she is a female cross-cousin (female's) (passive)]
Uncle,   O-me-shaw-may-e-maw.
[omishoomeyimaa - he is a parallel uncle (passive)]
Aunt,   O-nou-shay-e-maw.
[onosheyimaa - she is a parallel aunt (passive)]
Boy,   Que-we-zayns, pl. og.
[gwiiwizens, pl: -ag]
Girl,   Quay-zayns, pl. og.
[ikwezens, pl: -ag]
Man,   Au-ne-ne, pl. wog.
[anini, inini; pl: -wag]
Woman,   Au-quay, pl. wog.
[akwe, ikwe; pl: -wag]
Old man,   Au-ke-wa-ze, pl. yog.
[akiwenzii; pl: -yag]
Old woman,   Me-de-mo-yay, yog.
[mindimooyenh; pl: -yag]

Ae, yes. [enh]
Ka-ge-te, truly so. [geget]
Pe-nau! hark!
Pa-kau, stop. [bekaa]
Kau, no. [gaa]
Kau-win, no (emphatic). [gaawiin]
Ka-go, don't. [gego]
Kaw-ga-go, none. [gaa gegoo]
Nau-go, now. [noongom]
Au-zhon-daw, here.
E-wo-te, there. [iwedi]
Ne-gon, before. [niigaan]

Aush-kwe-yong, behind. [ashkweyaang, ishkweyaang]
Pe-tchi-naw-go, yesterday. [bijiinaago]
Pe-tchi-nog, just now. [bijiinag]
Au-no-maw-yaw, lately. [anoomaya]
Au-gaw-won, hardly. [agaawaa]
Au-pe-tchi, very. [aapiji]
Kay-gaw, almost. [gegaa]
Mou-zhawg, always. [moozhag]
Ne-sawb, alike. [naasaab]
Pin-dig, inside. [biindig]
Ne-se-wo-yaw-ing, between. [nisawayi'ii]
Wau-bung, to-morrow. [waabang]
Wau-e-baw, soon. [wayiiba]
Way-wib, quickly. [wewiib]
Naw-a-gotch, slowly. [naagaj]
O-je-daw, purposely. [onjida]
Saw-kou, for example. [sa go ?]
Me-naw-gay-kaw! to be sure! [mii nange go]
Kaw-maw-me-daw, can't.
Pin-di-gayn, come in. [biindigen]

We-yaw [wiiyaw],   The body. (his body)
O-dib [odib],   Head. (his scalp)
O-te-gwan [odengway],   Face. (his face)
O-don [odoon],   Mouth. (his mouth)
Osk-ke-zheg [oshkiinzhig],   Eye. (his eye)
O-no-wau-e [onow],1   Cheek. (his cheek)
Otch-awsh [ojaanzh],   Nose. (his nose)
O-daw-me-kon [odaamikan],   Jaw. (his jaw)
O-da-naw-naw [odenaniw],   Tongue. (his tongue)
We-bid [wiibid],   Tooth. (his tooth)
We-ne-zes [wiinizis],   Hair. (his hair)
O-kaw-tig [okatig],   Forehead. (his forehead)
O-maw-maw [omaamaa],   Eyebrow. (his eyebrow)
Kaw-gaw-ge,1   Palate. (palate; also: onagaskway - his palate)
O-kaw-gun [okwegan],   Neck. (his neck)
O-do-daw-gun,   Throat. (his throat; also: ogondashkway)
O-pe-kwawn [opikwan],   Back. (his back)
O-pe-gay-gun,   Rib. (his rib; also: opigemag)
O-me-gawt,   Stomach. (his stomach; also: omisad)
O-naw-gish [onagizh],   Bowel. (his bowel)
Osh-kawt,   Belly. (his belly)
O-kwan [okon],   Liver. (his liver)
O-kun [okan],   Bone. (his bone)
O-nenj [oninj],   Hand. (his hand)
O-neek [onik],   Arm. (his arm)
O-dos-kwon [odooskwan],   Elbow. (his elbow)
O-kawd [okaad],   Leg. (his leg)
O-ge-dig [ogidig],1   Knee. (his knee)
O-bwom [obwaam],   Thigh. (his thigh)
O-zeet [ozid],   Foot. (his foot)
O-don-dim [odoondan],   Heel. (his heel)
O-ge-tchi-zeet [ogichizid],   Big toe. (his big toe)
O-ge-tchi-nenj [ogichininj],   Thumb. (his thumb)

[Note 1: Pl. og; others an.]

Pe-nay-shen [buneshiinh],2   Bird.
Wing-ge-zee [migizi],   Eagle.
Pe-nay-se [binesi],   Hawk.
Mong [maang],    Loon.
Me-zhe-say [mizise],   Turkey.
She-sheb [zhiishiib],   Duck.
Kaw-yawshk [gayaashk],   Gull.
Tchin-dees [diindiisi],   Bluejay.
May-may [meme],   Woodcock.
Pe-nay [bine],   Partridge.
Au-dje-djawk [ajijaak],   Crane.
O-me-me [omiimii],   Pigeon.
Au-pe-tchi [opichi],   Robin.
Awn-dayg [aandeg],   Crow.
Au-nawk,   Thrasher.
Paw-paw-say [baapaase],   Woodpecker.
Ke-wo-nee,   Prairie hen. (also: aagask)
Maw-kwa [makwa],   Bear.
Mooz [mooz],   Moose.
Me-shay-wog,   Elk. (also: omashkooz)
Maw-in-gawn [ma'iingan],   Wolf.
Au-mick [amik],   Beaver.
Maw-boos [wabooz],   Rabbit.
Pe-zhen [bizhiw],   Lynx.
Au-ni-moosh [animoosh],   Dog.
Au-ni-mouns [animoons],   Puppy.
Au-zhawshk [wazhashk],   Muskrat.
Wau-goosh [waagosh],   Fox.
Shaw-gway-she [zhaangweshi],   Mink.
A-se-bou [esiban],   Raccoon.
Me-she-be-zhe [mishibizhii],3   Panther.
She-gos-se [zhingos],   Weasel.
Au-saw-naw-go [ajidamo],   Squirrel.

[Note 2: Pl. yog;]
[Note 3: Pl eg; others wog, og, g.]

Ke-gon [giigoonh],1 Fish.
Ke-gons [giigoons]2 (dim.), minnow.
Naw-me-gons [namegoons], trout,
Maw-zhaw-me-gons [maazhamegoons], brook trout,
Maw-may [name], sturgeon.
O-gaw [ogaa], pickerel.
She-gwaw-meg [zhigwaneg], dog fish.
Au-saw-way [asaawe], perch.
O-kay-yaw-wis, herring.
Au-she-gun [ashigan], black bass.
Au-de-kaw-meg [adikameg], whitefish.
Ke-no-zhay [ginoozhe], pike.
Paw-zhe-toun [maanashigan],1 sheep head.
Maw-maw-bin [namebin], sucker.
Maw-ne-tons [manidoons], insect.
O-jee [oojii], house fly.
Me-ze-zawk [mizizaak], horse fly.
Au-mon [aamoo], bumblebee.
Au-moans [aamoons] (dim), bee, hornet.
May-may-gwan [memengwa],1 butterfly.
Au-kou-jesh [ikwa], louse.
Paw-big [babig], flea.
O-ze-gog [ezigaa], woodtick.
A-naw-go [enigo], ant.
A-a-big [asabik(eshiinh)], spider.
Saw-ge-may [zagime], mosquito.
Mo-say [moose], cut worm.
O-quay [ookwe], maggot.
[Note 1: Pl. yog;]
[Note 2: Pl. sog; others wog, og, g.]

Paw-gawn [bagaan], nut; (dim, paw-gaw-nays [bagaanens], hazelnut or other small nut)
Au-zhaw-way-mish [azhawemizh], pl. eg;   beech tree.
Au-zhaw-way-min [azhawemin], pl. on;   beech nut.
Me-te-gwaw-bawk [mitigwaabaak], pl. og;   hickory tree.
Me-gwaw-baw-ko paw-gon [mitigwaabaako-bagaan], pl. on;   hickory nut.
Paw-gaw-naw-ko paw-gon [bagaanaako-bagaan], pl. on;   walnut.
Me-she-me-naw-gaw-wosh [mishiiminagaawanzh], pl. eg;   apple tree.
Me-she-min [mishiimin], pl. og;   apple.
Shaw-bo-me-naw-gaw-wosh [zhaboominagaawanzh], pl. eg;   gooseberry bush.
Shaw-bo-min [zhaboomin], pl. og;   gooseberry.
Paw-gay-saw-ne-mish [bagesaanimizh], pl. eg;   plum tree.
Paw-gay-son [bagesaan], pl. og;   plum.

Aw-nib [aniib], pl. eg; elm Aw-doup [wadoop], pl. eg; willow (alder)
Shin-gwawk [zhingwaak], pl. wog; pine Ke-zhek [giizhik], pl. og; cedar
Au-bo-yawk [abwaayaak], pl. wog; ash We-saw-gawk [wiisagaak], pl. og; black ash
Me-daw-min [mandaamin], pl. og; corn O-zaw-o-min [ozaawaamin], pl. og; yellow corn

Mis-kou-min [miskomin], pl. og; red raspberry.
Wau-be-mis-kou-min [waabi-miskomin], pl. og; white raspberry.
Wau-kaw-tay-mis-kou-min [makade-miskomin], pl. og; black raspberry.

Au-Kee [aki]; the world, the earth, land, country, soil.
Pay-maw-te-se-jeg au-king [bemaadizijig akiing], the people of the world.
Taw-naw-ke-win [danakiiwin], country or native land.
Ke-taw-kee-me-naw [gidakiminaan], our country.
Maw-kaw-te au-kee [makade aki], black earth or soil.
Me-daw-keem [nindakiim], my land.
Au-ke-won [akiiwan], soiled; also applied to rich land.

Ne-besh [nibish], water; ne-be-kaw [nibikaa], wet land.
Wau-bawsh-ko-kee [waabashkiki], marsh land.
Au-ke-kaw-daw-go-kee, tamarack swamp.
Ke-zhe-ke-kee [giizhikiki], cedar swamp.
Au-tay yaw-ko-kee, swamp, swampy land.
Shen-gwaw-ko-kee [zhingwaakaki], pine land.
Ne-gaw-we-kee [negawiki], sand;
ne-gaw-we-kaw [negawikaa], sandy.
Kong-ke-tchi-gaw-me, the ocean.
Ke-tchi-au-gaw-ming [gichi-agaaming], across the ocean.
Se-be [ziibi] (pl. won), river;
se-be-wens [ziibiwens] (dim), (pl.an,) brook.
Ke-te-gawn [gitigaan] (pl. on), farm;
ke-te-gaw-nes [gitigaanens] (dim), garden.
Ke-te-gay we-ne-ne [gitigewinini], (pl. wog), farmer.
Ke-zes [giizis], sun;
te-bik-ke-zes [dibik-giizis], moon;
au-nong [anang] (pl. wog), star.
Ke-zhe-gut [giizhigad], day;
te-be-kut [dibikad], night.
Ne-bin [niibin], summer;
pe-boon [biboon], winter.
Ne-be-nong [niibinong], last summer;
me-no-pe-boon [mino-biboon], pleasant winter.
Tau-gwan-gee [dagwaagi], fall;
me-nou-kaw-me [m(i)nook(a)mi - od.], spring.
Au-won-se-me-nou-kaw-ming [awasi-minookaming], year ago last spring.
Maw-tchi taw-gwan-ge [maji-dagwaagi], bad or unpleasant fall.
No-din [noodin], wind;
no-wau-yaw, the air.
No-de-naw-ne-mot [noodinaanimad], windy.
To-ke-sin, calm;
ne-tche-wod [nichiiwad], stormy.
Au-pe-tchi ne-tche-wod [aapiji nichiiwad], very stormy.
Wig-wom [wiigiwaam], house;
wig-wom-an [wiigiwaaman], houses.
Au-sin wig-wom [asin(ii)-wiigiwaam], stone house.
Au-naw-me-a-we-gaw-mig [anami'ewigamig], a church.
Te-baw-ko-we-ga we-gaw-mig [dibakonigewigamig], a court house.
Me-no-say [minose], handy
Au-no-ke [anokii], work
Wo-be [waabi], he sees
Pe-mo-say [bimose], he walks
Pe-me-bot-to [bimibatoo], he runs
Me-no-sayg [menoseg], that which is handy
A no-ket [enokiid], he that is working
Wau-yaw-bet [wayaabid], he that sees
Pe-mo-sayt [bemosed], he that is walking
Pe-me-bot-tot [bemibatood], he that runs
Get him, nawzh [naazh]
Help him, naw-daw-maw [naadamaw]
Call him, maw-doum [nandom]
Go to him, nam-zhe-kow [naazhikaw]
Meet him, maw-kwesh-kow [nakweshkaw]
Get it, naw-din [naadin]
Help it, naw-daw-maw-don

Ask for it, naw-dou-don [nandodan]
Go to it, naw-zhe-kon [naazikan]
Meet it, naw-kwesh-kon
Ne-dje-mon [ninjiimaan] , my boat
Ne-dje-bawn, my soul
Ne-gwes [ningwiss], my son
Ne-taw-wes [niitaawis], my cousin
Ne-daw-kim [nindakim], my land
Ne-dje may [ninjiime], I paddle.
Ne-do-ge-mom [nindoogimaam], my master.
Ne-daw-nes [nindaanis], my daughter.
Ne-kaw-nes [niikaanis], my brother.
Ne-ne-tehaw-new, my child.
He sleeps, ne-baw [nibaa]
He is sleepy, au-kon-gwa-she [agongweshi]
He is white, wau-besh-ke-zee [waabishikizi]
He is lonely, aush-ken-dom [gashkendam]
He is killed, nes-saw [nisaa]
He is dead, ne-bou. [nibo]
He died, ke-ne-bou. [gii-nibo]
He is afraid, sa-ge-ze. [zegizi]
He is lazy, ke-te-mesh-ke. [gitimishki]
He is well, me-no-pe-maw-de-ze.
[mino-bimaadizi]
Ne-tawn, first
[nitam]
No-gon, before
[nigan]
Au-ko-zee, sick
[aakozi]
Au-gaw-saw, small
[agaasaa]
Au-gaw-won, scarcely
[agaawaa]
Ne-tawn ke-taw-gwe-shin, he came first
[nitam gii-dagoshin]
Ne-gon-ne, he goes before.
[niigaanii]
Au-ko-ze-we-gaw-mig, hospital.
[aakoziiwigamin]
O-gaw-sawg o-naw gun pe-ton, bring small plate.
[Egaasaag onaagan biidoon]
Au-gaw-won ne-wob, I scarcely see.
[agaawaa niwaab]
Once, ne-go-ting
Not there, no-go-tchi
Change, mesh-kwot
Full, mosh-ken
Fill it, mosh-ke-naw-don
Only once, ne-go-ting a-taw.
Look elsewhere, ne-go-tchi e-naw-bin.
He is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi e-zhaw.
It is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi au-tay.
Change it, mes-kwo-to-non.
Saw-kon, go out [zaaga'an]
Maw-tchawn, go away [maajaan]
Pe-to, to bring [biidoon]
Pe-saw-kon, come out. [bi-zaaga'an]
Pe-maw-tchawn, come away. [bi-maajaan]
Pe-ton, fetch it. [biidoon]
Ash-kom, more and more
[eshkam]
Ash-kom so-ge-po, more and more snow
[eshkam zoogipo]
Ash-kom ke-me-wau, more and more rain
[eshkam gimiwan]
Ash-kom ke-zhaw-tay, hotter and hotter
[eshkam gizhaate]
Ash-kom ke-se-naw, colder and colder
[eshkam gisinaa]
Nos, my father.
[noos]
Kos, your father.
[goos]
O-sawn, his father.
[osan]
Ne-gaw-she, my mother.
[ningashi]
Ke-gaw-she, your mother.
[gigashi]
E-ke-to, saying [ikido]
E-ke-to, he says [ikido]
E-ke-ton, say it. [ikidon]
Ke-e-ke-to, he said. [gii-ikido]
Kay-go mon-daw e-ke-to-kay, do not say that. [gego maanda ikidoken]
E-wau, he says [the same as e-ke-to, but used only in third person and cannot be conjugated].
E-naw-bin, look;
[inaabin]
A-zhawd, going;
[ezhaad]
E-wo-te, there;
[iwidi]
Au-zhe-me, there;
Au-ne-me-kee, thunder;
[animikii]
Awsh-kon-tay, fire;
[ishkode]
On-je-gaw, leaked;
[onjigaa]
Kaw-ke-naw, all;
[gakina]
e-naw-bin au-zhon-daw, look here.
[inaabin azhonda]
au-ne-pe a-zhawd? Where did he go?
[aanipii ezhaad]
me-saw e-wo-te au-daw-yon, there is your home.
[mii sa iwidi endaayan]
au-zhe-me au-ton, set it there.
an-ne-me-ke-kaw, it thundered.
[animikiikaa]
awsh-kon-tay o-zhe-ton, make some fire.
[ishkode ozhitoon]
on-je-gaw tchi-mon, the boat leaked.
[onjigaa jiimaan]
kaw-ke-naw ke-ge-way-wog, all gone home.
[gakina gii-giiwewag]
Ke-wen [giiwen], go home. [This verb always implies home, but the emphatic expression is ke-wen en-daw-yawn [giiwen endaayan].]

Son-gon [zoongan] (inanimate), son-ge-ze [zoongizi] (animate), tough.
Se-gwan [ziigwan], spring;
Me-gwetch [miigwech], thanks;
Taw-kwo [dakwaa], short;
se-gwa-nong [ziigwanong], last spring (Chippewa dialect).
me-gwe-tchi-me-au [miigwechiwi'aa], he is thanked.
on-sawm taw-kwo [onzaam dakwaa], too short.

Ke-me-no-pe-maw-tis naw? Are you well? [gimino-bimaadiz na?]
Ae, ne-me-no-pe-maw-tis. Yes, I am well. [Eye, nimino-bimaadiz]
Ke-taw-kos naw? Are you sick? [gidaakoz na?]
Kau-win ne-taw-ko-si-sy. No, I am not sick. [gaawiin nindaakozisii]
Au-ne-pish kos e-zhat? Where did your father go? [aanipish goos ezhaad?]
O-day-naw-wing ezhaw. He is gone to town. [Oodenaang izhaa]
Ke-ge-we-sin naw? Have you eaten? [Gigii-wiisin na?]
Ae, ne-ge-aush-kwaw-we-sin. Yes, I have done eating. [Eye ningii-ishkwaa-wiisin]
Ke-baw-kaw-tay naw? Are you hungry? [Gibakade na?]
Kaw-win, ne-baw-kaw-tay-sy. No, I am not hungry. [Gaawiin nimbakadesii]
Pe-mo-say-win, walking (noun) [Bimosewin]
ne-pe-mo-say, I walk. [Nimbimose]
Aum-bay paw-baw-mo-say-taw, let us go walking. [Ambe babaamosedaa]
Ne-ge-paw-baw-mo-say, I have been walking. [Ningii-babaamose]
Ne-ge-paw-baw-mish-kaw, I have been boat riding. [ningii-babaamishkaa]
Aum-bay paw-baw-mish-kaw-daw, let us go boat riding. [Ambe babaamishkaadaa]
Maw-tchawn, go on, or go away. [Maajaan]
Maw-tchawn we-wib, go on quickly. [Maajaan wewiib]
Ke-maw-tchaw-wog, the have gone. [Gii-maajaawag]
Aum-bay maw-tchaw-taw, let us go. [Ambe maajaadaa]
Wau-saw e-zhaw, he is gone far away. [Waasa izhaa]
We-kau-de-win, a feast; we-koum, I invite him (to a feast). [wiikondiwin; wiikom]
We-kau-maw-wog, they are invited (to a feast).
Maw-zhe-aw, overpowered; maw-zhe-twaw, victorious.
Mou-dje-ge-ze-win, or, me-naw-wo-zo-win, rejoicing.
Mou-dje-ge-ze, or, me-naw-wo-ze, he rejoices.
Au-no-maw-yaw ke-daw-gwe-shin, he came lately. [Naanoomaya gii-dagoshin]
Au-pe-tchi ke-zhaw-tay, it is very hot. [Aapiji gizhaate]
Ke-tchi no-din, it is blowing hard. [Gichi-noodin]
Paw-ze-gwin we wib, get up quickly. [Bazigwiin wewiib]
Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got, good news. [Mino-inakamigad]
Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? It is good news? [Mino-inakamigad na?]
She-kaw-gong ne-de-zhaw-me, we are going to Chicago. [Zhigaagoong nindizhaamin]
She-kaw-gong on-je-baw, he came from Chicago. [Zhigaagoong onjibaa]
Saw-naw-got, difficult to overcome. [Zanagad]
Saw-naw-ge-ze, he is in difficulty. [Zanagizi]
Saw-naw-ge-ze-wog, they are in difficulty. [Zanagiziwag]
Sa-ge-ze, he is frightened; sa-ge-ze-win, fright. [Zegizi; zegiziwin]
Ke-gus-kaw-naw-baw-gwe naw? Are you thirsty? [Gigiishkaabaagwe na?]
Au-pe-tchi ne-gus-kaw-naw-gwe. I am very thirsty. [aapiji nigiishkaabaagwe]
Me-naw au-we, give him drink. [mina' awi]
Ne-bish me-naw, give him water to drink. [nibish mina']
O-daw-kim o-ge-au-taw-wen, he sold his land. [odakiim ogii-adaawen]
O-da paw-gaw-awn, the heart beats.
O-da me-tchaw-ne, he has a big heart. [ode' michaani]

Ke-ne-se-to-tom naw? Do you understand? [ginisidotam na?]
Ke-ne-se-to-tow naw? Do you understand me? [ginisidotaw na?]
Kau-win, ke-ne-se to-tos-no. No, I do not understand you. [gaawiin, gi-nisidotoosiinoon]
Ke-no-dom naw? Do you hear? [ginoondam ina?]
Ae, ne-no-dom. Yes, I hear. [eye, ninoondam]
Ke-pe-sen-dom naw? Do you listen? [gibizindam na?]
Ke-maw-ne-say naw? Are you chopping? [gimanise na?]
Maw-tchi e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? It it bad news? [maji-inaakamigad na?]
We-go-nash wau-au-yaw mon? What do you want? [wegonesh waa-ayaaman?]
Au-nish au-pe-daw-taw-gwe-she non? When did you come? [aaniish apii gaa-dagoshinan?]
Au-ne-pesh a-zhaw yon? Where are you going? [aanipiish ezhaayan?]
Au-ne-pesh wen-dje-baw yon? Where are you from? [aanipiish wenjibaayan?]
Au-ne-dosh wau-e-ke-to yon? What shall you say? [aniin dash waa-ikidoyan?]
Au-nish mon-daw e-naw-gen deg? What is the price? [aniish maanda (i'iw) inagindeg?]
Maw-ne-say, he chops; ma-ne-sayt, he that chops. [manise; menised]
Ne-bwa-kaw, wise; ne-bwa-kawt, he that is wise. [nibwaakaa; nebwaakaad]
Na-bwa-kaw-tching, they that are wise. [nebwaakaajig]
Wa-zhe-tou-tching awsh-kou-te, they that make fire. [wezhitoojig ishkode]
O-zhe-tou aush-ko-tay pin-je ke-zhaw-be-ke-se-gun, Make fire in the stove.
[ozhitoon ishkode biinji-gizhaabikizigan]
Wen-daw-mow way-naw-paw-nod au-zhon-daw, Tell him the cheap place is here.
[wiindamaw wenipanad azhonda]
Wen-daw-mow e-naw-kaw-me-gok, tell him the news. [wiindamaw enakamigak]
Taw-bes-kaw-be. He will come back.
Taw-be-e-shaw au-zhon-daw. He will come here. [da-bi-izhaa azhonda]
On-je-baw. Coming from. [onjibaa]
Wow-kwing on-je-baw. He comes from heaven.

Nau-go, now; [noongo]
nau-go-a-ge-zhe-gok, to-day. [noongo giizhigak]
Te-besh-kou, same, even; [dibishkoo]
ta-te-besh-kon, even with the other. [daadibishkoo]
To-dawn mon-daw e-ne-taw, do that as I tell you. [doodam maanda initaw]
Pe-sen-dow, listen to him; [bizindaw]
pe-sen-do-we-shin, listen to me. [bizindawishin]
Me-saw-wen-dje-gay. He covets.
Me-saw-me-dje-gay-win. Coveting.

E-zhaw-yon gaw-ya ne-ne-gaw e-zhaw. If you will go and also I will go.
[Ezhaayan gaye niin ninga-izhaa]
O-je-daw ne-ge-to-tem tchi-baw-ping. Purposely I did it to make laughter.
[Onjida ningii-doodam ji-baaping.]
Kaw-win ke-taw-gawsh-ke-to-se tchi-gaw-ke-so-taw-wod mau-ni-to, you cannot hide from God.
[Gaawiin gidaa-gashkitoosiin ji-gaazootawad manidoo]
Maw-no-a-na-dong taw-e-zhe-tchi-gay, let him do what he thinks.
[Maanoo daa-izhichige]
A-naw-bid. In the way he looks. [Enaabid]
E-naw-bin a-naw-bid. Do look in the way he looks. [Inabin enaabid]

Au-nish a-zhe-wa-bawk mon-daw? What is the matter with that?
[aaniish ezhiwebak maanda?]
Au-nish a-zhe-we-be-sit au-we? What is the matter with him?
[aaniish ezhiwebizid awi?]
Au-nish a-naw-tchi-moo-tawk? What did he tell you? [aaniish enaajimotok?]
E-zhaw. He went. [izhaa]
Au-ne-pish kaw-e-zhawd? Where did he go? [aanipish gaa-izhaad]
E-zhaw-wog. They went. [izhaawag]
Harbor Springs ke-e-zhaw-wog. They went to Harbor Springs. [Harbor String gii-izhaawag]
Ne-daw-yaw-naw e-naw-ko-ne-ga-win. We have a rule, or, a law.
[nindayaanan inaakoigewin]
O-we-o-kwon o-ge-au-taw-son. His hat he pawned. [owiiwaakwaan ogii-ataasoon]
Ne-be-me-baw-to-naw-baw au-pe pen-ge-she-naw. I was running when I fell.
[nimbimibatoonaaban apii bangishinaan]

Note - Except some condensation and arrangement in the grammar, this work is printed almost verbatim as written by the author. - EDITOR.


THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.

1st. Pay-zhe-go ke-zhe-maw-into me-so-de kay-go kaw-ge-zhe-tod; ke-gaw-pay-zhe-go gwaw-nawdji-aw ane-go-ko-day-a-you ke-gaw-pay-zhe-go saw-ge-aw.
2d. Kaw-we aw-nesh ke-zhe-maw-nito ke-gaw-wo-we nossi.
3d. Au-nwe-be-we-ne-ge-zhe-got ke-gaw-kwaw-nawdji-ton.
4th. Kouss kanie ke-gaw-she ke-gaw-me-naw-tene-mawg kenwezh tchi-we-pe-maw-deze-yan aw-zhon-daw aw-king.
5th. Ke-go au-we-yaw me-saw-wa-ne-maw-gay.
6th. Ke-go nau-nawe e-nau-de-se-kay.
7th. Ke-go ke-mou-de-kay.
8th. Ke-go kawie ke-no-wish-ke-kay tche-baw-taw-maw-de-baw au-we-ya.
9th. Ke-go mes-sau-we-naw-mau-we-ye-gay ke-dji-pe-maw-de-si o-we-de-gay-maw-gaw-non.
10th. Ke-go kauie au-we-yaw mes-saw-wendau mau-we-ye-gay ke-go andaw-nedji.


THE CREED.

Men da-bwe-taw-waw Pa-zhe-go maw-nito we-osse-mind, me-zo-day ke-go nay-taw-we-tod, kaw-ge-zhe-tod wau-kwee aw-ke kauie.
Men day-bwe-taw-me-mon knice ogwisson paw-ye-zhe-go-nedjin Jesus Krist te-bay-ne-me-nong. We-ne-zhe-she-nedjin maw-niton o-ge-aw-neshe-naw-bay-we-egoun, Mari-yon kaw-gaw-age we-nedjin oge-ne-ge-egoun. Ke-go-daw-ge-to me-gwaw o-ge-maw-wit Ponce Pila-tawn, ke-baw-daw-kaw-ko-wou tche-baw-yaw-te-gong, ke-ne-bon ke-naw-gwo-wau kauie au-naw-maw-kaw-mig ke-e-zhaw, waw-ne-so-ke-zhe-te-nig Ke-au-be-tchi-baw. Waw-kwing ke-e-zhaw, naw-maw-daw-be o-day-baw-ne-we-kaw-ning ke-zle-maw-niton way-osse me-medjin me-zo-day ke-go nay tau-we-to-nedjin me-dawst waw-de-be ke-be-ondji-bawd, tche-be-te-baw-ko-nod pay-maw-de-ze-nedjin, nay-bo-nedjin kauie. Men day-bwe-taw-waw Way-ne-zhe-shed maw-nito, men day-bwe-tawn kitche-two kaw-to-lic au-naw-me-a-we-gaw-mig, kay-tchi-two-wendaw-go-ze-djig o-we-do-ko-daw-de-we-ne-wau paw-taw-do-wene Kawss-au-maw-gay-win aw-bedji-baw-win ezhe-owe-yossing kaw-go-ne pe-maw-de-se-win. Aw-pe-inge.


THE LORD'S PRAYER.

Nossinaw wau-kwing e-be-you au-pe-gwish ke-tchi-twaw-wend-oming ke-daw-no-zo-win, au-pe-gish pe-daw-gwe-she-no-maw-gok ke-do-gimaw-o-win, ena-daw-mon au-pe-gish ezhe-wa-bawk, ti-bish-wau-kwing mego kauie au-king. Me-zhe-she-nong nongo au-gi-zhe-gawk nin baw-kwe-zhe-gaw-ne-me-naw menik e-you-yong en-daw-so ke-zhe-gok. Po-ne-ge-tay-taw-we-shi-nong kauie kaw-nish ki-e-nange te-bish-kon ezhe-pone-ge-day-taw-wou-ge-dwaw kaw-neshke-e-yo-mendjig, ke-go kauie ezhe-we-zhe-she-kong-gay kaw-gwe ti-bandji-gay-we-ning, au-tchi-tchaw-yo-ing dansh etaw eni-naw-maw-we-she-nong maw-tchaw-go-e-wish. Ken maw-ke-daw-yon o-ge-maw-owen, mawsh-kaw-we-se-win kauie pe-she-gain-daw-go-se-win, kaw-ge-gay-kow-mig au-pe-nay dash kau-e-go kaw-ge-nig. Amen.


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